Total views : 262
A Bit Plane based Filtering Technique for Drusen in Age-related Macular Degeneration
Objective: The authors propose to develop a new image filter technique based on bit planes of retinal fundus image to enhance the image preprocessing task. Method/Statistical Analysis: The most two significant bit planes of an image are taken and preprocessed using an image matrix filter. The image arithmetic operations are used to enhance the new filter. The sample graded portions of each of the 60 AMD images are processed to study this filter technique. The effect of the technique is studied with basic statistics tests using mean, median, standard deviation and t-test, testing on column vectors of images. Findings: The basic statistic measures such as mean, median, range and standard deviations are applied on image pixel data before and after application of filter technique. The standard deviation of post filtered graded portions of the image shows a higher value than that of the graded portions of unfiltered image, indicating that there is a positive effect of filtering. The effectiveness of the technique is also studied with a statistical paired t-test. This test is used to find the effect of processing bit planes of the respective graded pixel portions in the image samples. This statistical evidence of the result reveal that the null hypothesis is rejected to conclude that image is enhanced for further processing of drusen spots in AMD. Application/Improvements: The least bit planes of the graded portions of the image may be furthur processed to enable easier classification of different types of drusens in the image.
Age-related Macular Degeneration, Bit Plane, Drusen, Filter, Fundus Image.
- De Jong PT. Age-related macular degeneration. New England Journal of Medicine. 2006 Oct 5; 355(14):1474-85.
- Hijazi MH, Coenen F, Zheng Y. Data mining techniques for the screening of age-related macular degeneration. Knowledgebased Systems. 2012 May 31; 29:83-92.
- Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. The age-related eye disease study system for classifying age-related macular degeneration from stereoscopic color fundus photographs: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study Report Number 6. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2001 Nov 30; 132(5):668-81.
- Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study severity scale for age-related macular degeneration: AREDS Report no. 17. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2005 Nov; 123(11):1484.
- Evans JR. Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2001 Mar 31; 20(2):227-53.
- Drusen. 2013. Available from: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary .com/drusen
- The Macular Disease Society. 2013. Available from: www.maculardisease.org
- Lim T, Laude A. Age-related macular degeneration: An Asian perspective. Annals-Academy of Medicine Singapore.2007 Oct 1; 36(10):15.
- Understanding Age-Related Macular Degeneration. 2013. Available from: https://www.pennmedicine.org/for-patientsand-visitors/find-a-program-or-service/ophthalmology/ age-related-macular-degeneration-amd
- Kanagasingam Y, Bhuiyan A, Abramoff MD, Smith RT, Goldschmidt L, Wong TY. Progress on retinal image analysis for age related macular degeneration. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2014 Jan 31; 38:20-42.
- Sbeh ZB, Cohen LD, Mimoun G, Coscas G. A new approach of geodesic reconstruction for drusen segmentation in eye fundus images. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging.2001 Dec; 20(12):1321-33.
- Quellec G, Russell SR, Seddon JM, Reynolds R, Scheetz T, Mahajan VB, Stone EM, Abramoff MD. Automated discovery and quantification of image-based complex phenotypes: A twin study of drusen phenotypes in age-related macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science.2011 Nov 1; 52(12):9195-206.
- Barriga ES, Murray V, Agurto C, Pattichis MS, Russell S, Abramoff MD, Davis H, Soliz P. Multi-scale AM-FM for lesion phenotyping on age-related macular degeneration.22nd IEEE International Symposium on Computer-based Medical Systems (CBMS); 2009 Aug 2; p. 1-5.
- Subbuthai P, Muruganand S. Restoration of retina images using extended median filter algorithm. IEEE 2nd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN); 2015 Feb 19. p. 131-8.
- Aqeel AF. Automated algorithm for retinal image exudates and drusens detection, segmentation, and measurement.IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology; 2014 Jun 5. p. 206-15.
- Amini Z, Rabbani H. Statistical modeling of retinal optical coherence tomography. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. 2016 Jun; 35(6):1544-54.
- Rapantzikos K, Zervakis M, Balas K. Detection and segmentation of drusen deposits on human retina: Potential in the diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration. Medical Image Analysis. 2003 Mar 31; 7(1):95-108.
- Checco P, Corinto F. CNN-based algorithm for drusen identification. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems; 2006 May.
- Gonzalez RC, Woods RE. Digital Image Processing, 3rd Ed. Pearson Education; 2009.
- Janani P, Premaladha J, Ravichandran KS. Image enhancement techniques: A study. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 Sep; 8(22):1-12.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.