Total views : 61

Application of “8D Methodology” for the Root Cause Analysis and Reduction of Valve Spring Rejection in a Valve Spring Manufacturing Company: A Case Study


  • Department of IEM, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru - 572103, Karnataka,, India


The Eight Disciplines (8D) is a problem solving technique intended to identify the root cause of a problem.8D is a phenomenal first step to enhancing Quality and Reliability when the product is defective or not satisfying the customer. The study was conducted in a manufacturing company producing springs & stampings. The data was collected for a period of Six months from January 2014 to June 2014, to identify defective percentage of valve spring components and they were found to be high at the average rate of 17.07%. In this work the objective was set to reduce the rejection level to 5%. In order to achieve this, 8D problem solving technique was used to analyse and solve the problem. Then, Pareto analysis was done to identify vital causes contributing defectives. From the Pareto analysis, it was found that functioning length variation (L2) is the major cause for rejection. Further brainstorming sessions was held to identify the root causes. After the brainstorming session, cause and effect diagram was constructed and 5why analysis was carried out and it was found to be variation in the pitch distance at the begin-end side leading to negative helix in the functioning length of the valve spring. The suggestions to reduce the rejection percentage were to make pitch distance equal at begin-end side of the valve spring and to gradually increase the pitch up to 2 coils. After implementing the suggestion the pitch distance were equal at the begin-end side of the spring which reduces the negative helix in the functioning length reducing the percentage of rejection to 4.91% in July 2014, from average rejection of 17.07% (6 months data).


8D Method, Valve Spring, Pareto Analysis, 5why Analysis, Negative Helix.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 61)


  • Rambaud L. “8D Structured Problem Solving: A Guide to Creating High Quality 8D Reports”, Phred Solutions, Breckenridge, CO, USA. 2006
  • Doane DB. Explanation of 8D Problem Solving (Eight Disciplines). Retrieved September 28, 2012, Available from.Crossref. 1987
  • Chen HR, Cheng BW, A case study in solving customer complaints based on the 8Ds method and
  • Kano model. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers, 2010; 27(5): 339–50.Available from: Crossref
  • Bhote KB. The ultimate six sigma: Beyond quality excellence. New York: AMACOM Division American Management Association. 2002.
  • Yin RK., Case study research: Design and methods. 2nd ed, Thousand Oaks: Sage. 1994.
  • Yin RK., Applications of case study research. 2nd ed.Applied Social Research Methods Series, ed Bickman L, Rog DJ. 2003; 34. London: Sage Publications.
  • Fauzi AF. 8D (Eight disciplines) problem-solving methodology.March 27, 2012, Available from: Crossref
  • Kokol R, Gladež E. Reševanje problemov (8D) in metoda 5 x zakaj [Problem Solving (8D) and the 5 Whys Method].Sij, 2011; 10: 36–8.
  • Jung B, Schweißer S, Wappis J. (2011). 8D und 7STEP – Systematisch Probleme lösen [8D and 7 STEPs – Systematic Problem Solving]. München: Carel Hanser Verlag.Available from: Crossref
  • Elsmar. The 8-D (Eight Disciplines) Problem Solving Methodology September 2012. .Available from: Crossref
  • Ubani EC. (2011). Empirical analysis of success factors in the implementation of total quality management in construction industries in Nigeria. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2011; (2)12: 182–92.
  • Wan Ahmad Najmuddin Wan Saidin, Azalan Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohd Zaidi Azir, Harlina Ngah, Noraishah Mohamad Noor and M.H Norhidayah., 8D Methodology: An Effective Approach for Problem Solving in Automotive Assembly Line. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 2014; 8(22): 31–4,
  • Independent Journal of Management and Production (Ijm&P), July-September 2013; . 4(2).
  • 9th International DAAAM Baltic Conference “INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING” 24-26 April 2014, Tallinn, Estonia.
  • With 8D method to excellent quality, Journal of Universal Excellence, Professional Article October 2012;. 3: 118–29.
  • Volvo Powertrain Assessment and improvement of Volvo Powertrain”s “Quality Journal” problem solving process with respect to Six Sigma Larsson, Marcus and Norén, Martin.
  • Samuel, Andrew; Weir, John. Introduction to engineering design: Modeling, synthesis and problem solving strategies. 1999.
  • The 8D Methodology: An Effective Way to Reduce Recurrence of Customer Complaints?, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering. 2010; Vol III WCE 2010, June 30 - July 2, 2010, London, U.K.
  • Wilson, Paul F, Dell, Larry D, Anderson, Gaylord F. (1993).Root Cause Analysis: A Tool for Total Quality Management. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: ASQ Quality Press. 8–17. ISBN 0-87389-163-5.PMCid:PMC1682104


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.