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An Application of Fractal-Based Lightning for SFR Calculation of High Voltage Substations
Objectives: To simulate the lightning more close to reality and investigate the performance of the lightning protection system of high voltage substation. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The method which is used for the system analysis is a new fractal-based model of simulated lightning by which the zigzag movement of lightning downward leader as well as branching nature is simulated. A new charge distribution is proposed for branched lightning channel. In addition, the branch fading during the lightning downward movement is also simulated in order to simulate the lightning more close to the reality. Findings: The results of the simulated lightning using the proposed method show that the proposed fractal method simulates the lightning close to the reality. The striking distances of a transmission line structure for different lightning return stroke currents are obtained by the proposed method and compared to those of Electrogeometric Model (EGM) and Leader Progression Model (LPM). The results show that how the proposed method obtains a wide range of possible results statistically. The lightning shielding system performance of a practical high voltage substation is investigated based on the proposed model in two different scenarios by which the effect of substation instruments on the lightning protection system is investigated. The results reveal that the presence of the substation instruments completely affects the shielding system performance. Using the propose method, the random behavior of the lightning is well modeled and the shielding failure of the protection system is investigated in a statistical manner. The obtained results are compared to those of EGM, and LPM. The results are discussed and superiority of the proposed simulated lightning model is concluded. Application/ Improvements: The proposed method simulates the different features of the lightning including 1- branching nature, 2- zigzag movement, 3- random behavior, 4- branch fading, 5- branched charge distribution.
Fractal Concept, High Voltage Substation, Lightning, Shielding Failure.
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