Total views : 230

The Effect of Various Pilates Activities on Abdominal Muscles Thickness

Affiliations

  • Department of Physical Therapy, Sun Moon University, Korea
  • Department of Occupational Therapy, Sangji Youngseo University, Korea

Abstract


Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate eight pilates exercise effective in thickness of abdominal muscles and to suggest effective pilates exercise. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study was conducted in a total 21 participants applied the eight pilates exercise and using sonography during pilates exercise. Firstly, at resting position using scanning Transverse Abdominis (TrA), Internal Oblique (IO) and External Oblique (EO) thickness in sonography. After measurement, using sonography scanned thickness of the TrA, IO and EO while maintaining the eight pilates exercise. While maintaining exercise, scanning again done if the body was shaken violently. The starting position of all the exercise insupine position were proceeding at supine abdominal strength. Three times scanning was done to calculate and average per data was analyzed. Two minute resting time was taken between the exercises to prevent muscle fatigue. Findings: We compared the thickness variation of TrA, IO and EO in resting position and the eight pilates exercise shown (p<.05). Results of post-test, TrA showed significant differences in resting position, shoulder bridge, hundred, one leg stretch, double leg stretch, roll up, crisscross, scissors and one leg circle exercise (p<.05). IO was significantly different between resting position and roll up exercise (p<.05), EO; similarly significantly different for shoulder bridge between one leg stretch, crisscross and scissors (p<.05). Comparison of all the results, TrA, IO and EO were all statistically significant different (p<.05). This study using sonography during eight pilates exercise compared to real-time measurement of the change in abdominal muscle thickness. As a result, each exercises different in the thickness of the TrA, IO and EO. Most of the previous paper about pilates exercise and abdominal muscles using pilates exercise program, researchers made measurement through the EMG activity of the abdominal muscles after a long period of time applied to the subjects. Electromyography (EMG) is difficult to estimate and indirectly shown muscle contraction, relaxation because it is non invasive method and the data is forecasts. So we conducted a study using sonography. In addition, the various research program of around one hour and mix pilates exercise it is difficult to know how exercise activated each muscles. Application/Improvements: Purpose of this study is to compare the eight pilates exercise affecting TrA, IO and EO thickness compare analyze. Our findings eight pilates exercise are effective in TrA, roll up is effective in IO and one leg stretch, crisscross, scissors are effective in EO. Therefore, strengthening of the trunk local muscle is effective in roll up. In addition, strengthening of the global muscle high kinetic effect can be obtained in one leg stretch, crisscross and scissors with trunk rotation.

Keywords

Global Muscles, Local Muscles, Pilates, Sonography.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 221)

References


  • Ickes DM. Pilates, an adjunct to a PT’s practice. Rehabilitation and Management. 2009; 22(5):32–3.
  • Latey P. The pilates method, history and philosophy. Journal of Bodywork Movement Therapy. 2001; 5(4):275–82.
  • Brooke-Wavell K, Perrett LK, Howarth PA, Haslam RA. Influence of the visual environment on the postural stability in healthy older women. Gerontology. 2002; 48:293–7.
  • Smith PJ, Blumenthal JA, Hoffman BM, Cooper H, Strauman TA, Welsh-Bohmer K, et al. Aerobic exercise and neurocognitive performance. Psychosomatic Medicine. 2010; 72(3):239–52.
  • Emery K, De Serres SJ, McMillan A, Cote JN. The effects of a Pilates training program on arm-trunk posture and movement. Clinical Biomechanics. 2010; 25(2):124–30.
  • Posadzki P, Lizis P, Hagner-Derengowska M. Pilates for low back pain, a systematic review. Complement Therapy and Clinical Practice. 2011; 17(2):85–9.
  • Goldby LJ, Moore AP, Doust J, Trew ME. A randomised controlled trial investigating the efficiency of musculoskeletal physiotherapy on chronic low back disorder. Spine. 2006; 31:1083–93.
  • Fitt S, Struman J, McClain-Smith S. Effect of pilates-based conditioning on strength, alignment and range of motion in university ballet and modern dance majors. Kinesiology and Medicine for Dance. 1994; 16(1):36–51.
  • Kisner C, Colby LA. Therapeutic exercise, foundation and techniques, 2nd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 1996.
  • Akuthota V, Nadler SF. Core strengthening. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation. 2004; 85(3):86–92.
  • Morris SL, Lay B, Allison GT. Transversus abdominis in part of a global not local muscle synergy during arm movement. Human Movement Science. 2013; 32(5):176–85.
  • Gardner-Morse MG, Stokes IA. The effects of abdominal muscle coactivation on lumbar spine stability. Spine. 1998; 23(1):86–91.
  • Brumagne S, Lysens R, Spaepen A. Lumbosacral position sened during pelvic tilting in men and women without low back pain, test development and rehability assessment. Orthopedics and Sports Physical Iherapy. 1999; 29(6):345–51.
  • Cholewicki J, McGill SM. Mechanical stability of the in vivo lumbar spine, Implications or injury and chronic low back pain. Clinical Biomechanics. 1996; 11(1):1–15.
  • Neumann P, Gill V. Pelvic floor and abdominal muscle interaction, EMG activity and intra-abdominal pressure. International Urogynecology Journal of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. 2002; 13(2):125–32.
  • Marques NR, Morcelli MH, Hallal CZ, Gonçalves M. EMG activity of trunk stabilizer muscles during Centering Principle of Pilates Method. Journal of Bodywork Movement Therapy. 2013; 17(2):185–91.
  • Silva GB, Morgan MM, Carvalho WR, Silva E, Freitas WZ, Silva FF, et al. Electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis muscles during dynamic Pilates abdominal exercises. Journal of Bodywork Movement Therapy. 2014; 1–7.
  • Rankin G, Stokes M, Newham DJ. Abdominal muscle size and symmetry in normal subjects. Muscle Nerves. 2006; 34(3):320–6.
  • Critchley DJ, Pierson Z, Battersby G. Effect of pilates mat exercises and conventional exercise programmes on transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis activity, Pilot randomised trial. Man Therapy. 2011; 16(2):183–9.
  • Richardson CA, Jull GA, Hodges PW, Hides JA. Therapeutic exercise for spinal segmental stabilization in low back pain. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 1999.
  • Ebenbichler GR, Oddsson LI, Kollmitzer J, Erim Z. Sensory-motor control of the lower back, implications for rehabilitation. Medical Science Sports Exercise. 2001; 33(11):1889–98.
  • Carvalho P, Pereira A, Santos R, Boas JP. EMG of the transverse abdominus and multifidus during pilates exercises. Portuguese Journal of Sports Science. 2011; 11:1–2.
  • O'Sullivan PB, Twomey L, Allison GT. Altered abdominal muscle recruitment in patients with chronic back pain following a specific exercise intervention. Journal of Orthopology and Sports Physical Therapy. 1998; 27(2):114–24.
  • Francisco J. Vera-Garcia, Moreside JM, McGill SM. Abdominal muscle activation changes if the purpose is to control pelvis motion or thorax motion. Journal of Electromyogrphy Kinesiology. 2011; 21(6):893–903.
  • Bergmark A. Stability of the lumbar spine, a study in mechanical engineering. Acta Orthopology Scandinavica Suppl. 1989; 230:1–54.
  • Willett GM, Hyde JE, Uhrlaub MB, Wendel CL, Karst GM. Relative activity of abdominal muscle during prescribed strengthening exercises. Journal of Strength and Condition Research. 2001; 15(4):480–5.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.