Total views : 2731

In vitro Studies on Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Azima tetracantha Lam leaf extracts


  • Dept. of Biotechnology, Alpha Arts and Science College, Chennai – 600 116, India
  • Centre for Toxicology and Developmental Research, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai – 600 116, India
  • Dept. of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai – 625 104, India
  • Dept. of Botany, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai – 600 030, India


The leaves of Azima tetracantha (Salvadoraceae) commonly known as "mulluchangu" is best known for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the antioxidant potency of successive extracts (petroleum ether, hexane, ethylacetate&methanol) was investigated, by determining the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannin and phenolic compounds. The free radical scavenging activity of various solvent extracts of the leaves was assessed by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide radical (NO), superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxide generating models. Reducing power and Vit E level in the leaves were also measured. The results show that the methanol extract of the plant A. tetracantha contains significant quantities of the antioxidant principles compared to the other solvent extracts. Similar observations were seen in scavenging the free radicals by the methanolic extract of the leaves of A. tetracantha. Thus the therapeutic property of the leaves of the plant A. tetracantha can be attributed to the antioxidant principles which scavenge the free radicals responsible for pathological severity.


Azima tetracantha, Phytochemicals, Antioxidants, Free Radical Scavenger

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 1474)


  • Anagnostopoulou MA, Kefalas P, Papageorgiou VP, Assimepoulou AN and Boskou D (2006) Radical scavenging activity of various extracts and fractions of sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis). Food Chem. 94, 19–25.
  • Anderson D (1999) Antioxidant defences against reactive oxygen species causing genetic and other damage. Mutation Res. 350, 103–108.
  • Apati P, Szentmihalyi K, Kristo Sz T, Papp I, Vinkler P, Szoke E (2003) Herbal remedies of Solidago, correlation of phytochemical characteristics and antioxidative properties. J. Pharmacol. Biomed. Analysis. 32, 1045–1053.
  • Arokiyaraj S, Radha R, Martin S and Perinbam K (2008) Phytochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of Cadaba fruticosa R.Br. Indian J.Sci.Technol. 1 (6), 1-4. Domain site:
  • Balakumar K, Ramanathan S Kumaresan and Suresh R (2010) DNA damage by sodium arsenite in experimental rats: ameliorative effects of antioxidant vitamins C and E. Indian J.Sci.Technol. 3 (3), 322-327. Domain site:
  • Becana M and Klucas RV (1992) Transition metals in legume root nodules; iron-dependent free radical production increases during nodule senescence. Proc. Nat. Academy Sci. USA, 89, 8958–8962.
  • Begum TN, Muhammad Ilyas MH, Burkanudeen A, Kalavathy S, Vijaya Anand A, Sampathkumar P and Jaswanth (2009) A Hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Azima tetracantha Lam. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J. Cell Tissue Res. 9(1), 1681-1685.
  • Bennett RN, Rosa EA, Perkins L and Kroon PA (2004) Profiling glucosinolates, flavonoids, alkaloids, and other secondary metabolites in tissues of Azima tetracantha L (Salvadoraceae). J. Agric. Food Chem. 52(19), 5856-5862.
  • Beyer RE (1994) The role of ascorbate in antioxidant protection of biomembranes: Interaction with vitamin E and coenzyme Q. J. Bioenergy Biomembrane. 26, 349−358.
  • Bito T, Roy S, Sen CK and Packer L (2000) Pine bark extract Pycnogenol down regulates IFN-g-induced adhesion of T cells to human keratinocytes by inhibiting inducible ICAM-1 expression. Free Radical Biol. Med. 28, 219–227.
  • Blois MS (1958) Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature. 181, 1199–1200.
  • Braughler JM, Chase RL and Pregenzer JF (1987) Oxidation of ferrous ion during peroxidation of various lipid substrates. Biochem. Biophy. Acta. 921, 457−464.
  • Chang C, Yang M, Wen H and Chern J (2002) Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J. Food Drug Analysis. 10, 178-182.
  • Chopra RN, Nayar SL and Chopra C (1956) Glossary of lndian Medicinal Plants. CSIR, New Delhi, pp32, 218.
  • Daulatabad CD, Desai VA, Hosamani KM and Jawkhande AM (1991) Novel fatty acids in Azima tetracantha seed oil. J. Amer. Oil Chemists Soc. 68, 978- 979.
  • Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnok JS and Tannenbaum SR (1982) Analysis of nitrate and in biological fluids. Anal.Biochem. 126, 131.
  • Hagerman AE, Riedl KM, Jones GA, Sovik KN, Ritchard NT and Hartzfeld PW (1998) High molecular weight plant polyphenolics (Tannins) as biological antioxidants. J. Agri. Food Chem. 46, 1887–1892.
  • Halliwell B (1991) Reactive oxygen species in living systems: source, biochemistry and role in human disease. Annl. J. Med. 91(Suppl. 3C), 14S–22S.
  • Halliwell B and Gutteridge JMC (1984) Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease. Biochem. J. 219, 1−14.
  • Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC and Aruoma OI (1987) The deoxyribose method: simple ‘‘test-tube’’ assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Anal. Biochem. 165, 215–219.
  • Hatano T, Edamatsu R, Mori A, Fujita and Yasuhara E (1989) Effect of interaction of tannins with co-existing substances VI. Effect of tannins and related polyphenols on superoxide anion radical and on DPPH radical. Chem. Pharma. Bull. 37, 2016–2021.
  • Hebbar SS, Harsha VH, Shripathi V, Hegde VR (2004) Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India—plants used in oral health care. J. of Ethnopharmacol. 94, 261–266.
  • Howell JC (1986) Food antioxidants: international perspectives welcome and introductory remarks. Food Chem. Toxicol. 24, 997.
  • Ignacimuthu SM, Ayyanar AK, Sankarasivaraman (2008) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Paliyar tribals in Theni district of Tamil Nadu, India. Fitoterapia. 79, 562–568.
  • Ismail TS, Gopalakrishnan S, Begum VH and Elango V (1997) Anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga Wall and Azima tetracantha Lam. J. Ethnopharmacol. 56(2), 145-152.
  • Kakkar P, Das B and Viswanathan PN (1984) A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys, 21, 130-32.
  • Kirtikar KR, Basu BD and An ICS (1984) Ind. Med. Plants. 1 & 2, 2nd Edn. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun. pp: 582, 1541.
  • Kivits GAA, Vam der Sman FJP, Tijburg LBM (1997) Analysis of catechin from green and black tea in humans: a specific and sensitive colorimetric assay of total catechins in biological fluids. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 48, 387-392.
  • Kokate CK (2001) Parmacohnosy. 16th edn., Nirali Prakasham, Mumbai, India.
  • Koleva II, Van Beek TA, Linssen JPH, de Groot A and Evstatieva LN (2002) Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochem. Analysis. 13, 8-17.
  • Korycka-Dahl M and Richardson M (1978) Photogeneration of superoxide anion in serum of bovine milk and in model systems containing riboflavin and aminoacids. J. Dairy Sci. 61, 400–407.
  • Lean M, Norrozi M, Kelly L, Burrns J, Talwar D and Satter N (1999) Dietary flavanoids protect diabetic human lymphocytes against oxidant damage to DNA. Diabetes. 48, 176–181.
  • Littarru GP, Lippa S, De Sole P, Oradei A, Dalla Torre F and Mari M (1984) Quenching of singlet oxygen by D-alphatocopherol in human granulocytes. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Comm. 119, 1056−1061.
  • McDonald S, Prenzler PD, Autolovich M and Robards K (2001) Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts. Food Chem. 73, 73-84.
  • Middleton E and Kandaswami C (1992) Efects of flavonoids on immune and inflammatory function. Biochem. Pharmacol. 43, 1167-1179.
  • Mi-Yae Shon, Tae-Hun Kim and Nak-Ju Sung (2003) Antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity of Phellinus baumii (Phellinus of Hymenochaetaceae) extracts. Food Chem. 82, 593–597.
  • Mohamed Al-Fatimi, Martina Wurster, Gudrun Schroder, Ulrike Lindequist (2007) Antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from Yemen. J. Ethnopharmacol. 111, 657–666.
  • Moure A, Cruz J, Franco D, Dominguez J, Sineiro J and Dominguez H (2001) Natural antioxidants from residual sources. Food Chem. 72, 145–171.
  • Murthy EN, Sudhakar Reddy C, Reddy KN and Raju VS (2008) Ethnomedicinal observations from the Maha-Mutharam and Yamanpally tribal villages of Karimangar, East forest division of Andhra Pradesh, India .Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12, 513-51.
  • Nadkarni KM (1976) Indian Meteria Medica, 3rd Edn. Popular Prakhasan, Bombay, 1,165.
  • Nandgude TD, Bhojwani AP and Krishna Kinage (2007) Analgesic activity of various extracts of leaves of Azima tetracantha Lam. Int. J. Green Pharm. 1(1), 37-38.
  • Nathan CF and Hibbs Jr JB (1991) Role of nitric oxide synthesis in macrophage antimicrobial activity. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 3, 65–70.
  • Nowakowska Z (2007) A review of anti-infective and anti-inflammatory chalcones. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 42,125-137. B.S.
  • Ohkawa H, Ohishi N and Yagi K (1979) Assay of lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thio babituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem. 95, 351.
  • Pacher P, Beckman JS and Liaudet L (2007) Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: In health and disease. Physiol. Rev. 87(1), 315–424.
  • Patricia I, Oteiza AG, Erlejman S, Verstraeten V, Keen CL and Fraga CS (2005) Flavonoid-membrane interactions: A protective role of flavonoids at the membrane surface. Clinl. Develop. Immunol. 12, 23–25.
  • Pervaiz S and Clement M (2007) Superoxide anion: oncogenic reactive oxygen species?Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39, 1297–1304.
  • Pong K (2003) Oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases: therapeutic implications for superoxide dismutase mimetics. Exp. Opin. Biol. Therapy. 3,127-139.
  • Prieto P, Pineda M and Agulilar M (1999) Spectrophotometric quantification of antioxidant capacity through the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application of Vit E. Anal. Biochem. 269, 337-341.
  • Ragupathy S, Newmaster G Steven, Maruthakkutti M, Velusamy B and Ul-Huda MM (2008) Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills. Ind. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 4, 8.
  • Rajesh Manian , Nagarajan Anusuya , Perumal Siddhuraju and Sellamuthu Manian (2008) The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging potential of two different solvent extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz, Ficus bengalensis L. and Ficus racemosa L. Food Chem. 107, 1000–1007.
  • Rall GJH, Smalberger TM, De Waal HL and Arndt RR (1967) Dimeric piperidine alkaloids from Azima tetracantha. Tetrahedron Letts. 3465-3469.
  • Rao VE and Prasada Rao PRS (1978) Occurrence of triterpenoids in Azima tetracantha. Curr. Sci. 47, 857.
  • Robak J and Marcinkiewiez E (1995) Scavenging of reactive oxygen species as the mechanism of drug action. Pol. J. Pharmacol. 47, 89-98.
  • Ruch RT, Cheng SJ and Klawnig E (1989) Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by auto oxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis, 10, 1003–1008.
  • Sandhya B, Manoharan S, Sirisha Lavanya G and Ch. Ratna Manmohan (2010) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in prostate cancer patients. Indian J.Sci.Technol. 3 (1), 83-86. Domain site:
  • Schanderl S (1970) Methods in food analysis. Academic press New York, p70.
  • Shahidi F, Liyana-Pathirana CM and Wall DS (2006) Antioxidant activity of white and black sesame seeds and their hull fractions. Food Chem. 99, 478–483.
  • Siva N, Ganesan N, Banumathy and Muthuchelian (2008) Antifungal effect of leaf extract of some medicinal plants against Fusarium oxysporum causing wilt disease of Solanum melogena L .Ethnobotanical Leaflets.12, 156-163.
  • Vetrivel Rajan, Shanmugavalli N, Greety Sunitha C and Umashankar V (2009) Hepatoprotective effects of Cassia tora on CCl4 induced liver damage in albino rats. Indian J.Sci.Technol. 2 (3), 41-44. Domain site:
  • Vikneshwaran D, Viji M and Raja Lakshmi K (2008) A survey of the Ethnomedicinal flora of the Sirumalai hills, Dindugul District, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12, 948-53.
  • Williams UV and Nagarajan S (1988) Isorhamnetin-3-Orutinoside from leaves of Azima tetracantha Lam. Ind. J. Chem. 27, 387.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.