Total views : 423

A Dual-Parameter Adaptive Timer Decision Algorithm for Load Balancing and Ping-Pong Handover Control in LTE Networks


  • UTM-MIMOS CoE in Tele Communication Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Technologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor - 81310, Malaysia
  • Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Malaysia


Background/Objectives: In order to increase spectral efficiency and lower handover signaling overhead in long term evolution network, load balancing optimisation and ping-pong handover avoidance is important. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Here, an algorithm that uses an adaptive timer was developed to run on the network. The network comprises of seven cells numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 respectively. Each cell is powered by a centrally placed cell equipped with omni-directional antennas to covers its cell area and neighboring cell-edge users. Receive signal strength and cell load estimates were jointly used to model the handover adaptive timer for decision accuracy. Findings: Findings were made the validation of the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) using computer simulations. The KPIs of attention in this research were load balancing index of the network, number of unsatisfied users, cumulative number of ping-pong handover request, cumulative number of non-ping-pong handover request and average throughput of the cell. The results of our proposal out perform two other references cited in literature. In terms of load distribution index specifically, a 95% level was achieved after only 150 load balancing cycles. Conclusion/Improvements: The propose solution proves great for its ability to effectively detect ping-pong handover request and non-ping-pong handover request while load balancing decision process is in progress.


Adaptive Timer, Load Balancing, Long Term Evolution, Ping-Pong Handover, Self-Organising Network

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 232)


  • Carvalho M, Vieira P. An enhanced handover oscillation control algorithm in LTE Self-Optimizing networks. 14th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC); Brest; 2011 Oct 3-7. p. 1–5.
  • Marwat SNK, Meyer S, Weerawardane T, Goerg C. Congestion-aware handover in LTE systems for load balancing in transport network. ETRI Journal. 2014 Oct; 36(5):761–71.
  • Luan Y, Wang B, Lv ZB, Wang JQ. A novel optimizing mechanism of load balancing in LTE network. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computer and Information Application (ICCIA 2012); 2012. p. 1–4.
  • El Morabet F, El Moussaoui A, Aknin N. Adaptive handover time scheme for dynamic load balancing in LTE systems.International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS); Tangier. 2012 May 10-12. p. 578–82.
  • Honglin H, Jian Z, Xiaoying Z, Yang Y, Ping W. Self-configuration and self-optimization for LTE networks. IEEE Communications Magazine. 2010 Feb; 48(2):94–100.
  • Feher Z, Veres A, Heszberger Z. Ping-pong reduction using sub cell movement detection. IEEE 75th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring); Yokohama. 2012 May6-9. p. 1–5.
  • Alradwan H, Motermawy A, Ghanem K. Reducing pingpong handover effect in LTE mobile networks using TRIAS. Journal for Research and Scientific Studies Engineering Sciences series. 2011; 33(4):237–50.
  • €Alonso-Rubio J. Self-optimization for handover oscillation control in LTE. IEEE Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS); Osaka. 2010. p. 950–3.
  • Kim WI, Lee BJ, Song JS, Shin YS. Ping-pong avoidance algorithm for vertical handover in wireless overlay networks. IEEE 66th Vehicular Technology Conference VTC-2007 Fall; Baltimore, MD. 2007 Sep 30-Oct 3. p. 1509–12.
  • Tamea G, Vegni AM, Inzerilli T,Cusani R. A probability based vertical handover approach to prevent ping-pong effect. 6th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems ISWCS 2009; Tuscany. 2009 Sep 7-10. p.181–5.
  • Ahamed MM, Islam Z, Hossain S, Faruque S. LTE network coverage prediction for multi-traffic users in an urban area.IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (EIT); Rapid City, SD. 2013 May 9-13. p. 1–6.
  • Yildirim M, Alagoz F. WLC14-3: A new handover decision management algorithm in wireless overlay networks. Global Telecommunications Conference GLOBECOM ‘06; SanFrancisco, CA. 2006 Nov 27-Dec 1. p. 1–5.
  • Hao H, Xiangming W, Wei Z, Yong S, Bo W. Game theory based load balancing in self-optimizing wireless networks. The 2nd International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering (ICCAE); Singapore. 2010 Feb 26-28.p. 415–8.
  • Huang YF, Gao FB, Hsu HC. Performance of an adaptive timer-based handoff scheme for wireless mobile communications. Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS InternationalConference on Signal Processing, Computational Geometry and Artificial Vision; 2010. p. 46–51.
  • Wang H, Liu N, Li Z, Wu P, Pan Z, You X. A unified algorithm for mobility load balancing in 3GPP LTE multi-cell networks. Science China Information Sciences. 2013 Feb;56(2):1–11.
  • Nathanie S, Syed Ariffin SH, Fisal N, Binti Ghazali NE, Khan AS. A cost function algorithm for mobility load balancing in long term evolution networks. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2013 Jan; 7(7):742–54.
  • Kwan R, Arnott R, Paterson R, Trivisonno R, Kubota M. On mobility load balancing for LTE systems. IEEE 72nd Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC 2010-Fall); Ottowa,ON. 2010 Sep 6-9. p. 1–5.
  • Peng J, Hong P, Xue K, Tang H. A dynamic energy savings scheme based on enhanced mobility load balancing. IEEEVehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall); Quebec City, QC. 2012 Sep 3-6. p. 1–5.
  • Lee DW, Gil GT, Kim DH. A cost-based adaptive handover hysteresis scheme to minimize the handover failure rate in 3GPP LTE system. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking-Special issue on adaptive cross-layer strategies for fourth generation wireless. 2010 Feb; 2010; 6.
  • Zhang L, Liu Y, Zhang M, Jia S, Duan X. A two-layer mobility load balancing in LTE self-organization networks. IEEE 13th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT); Jinan. 2011 Sep 25-28. p. 925–9.
  • Priyanka SS, Vetrivelan P. Optimizing energy in relay transmission schemes in LTE-A networks. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 Aug; 8(20):1–7.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.