Total views : 333
An Empirical Propagation Model for Path Loss Prediction at 2100MHz in a Dense Urban Environment
Objectives: Radio propagation models are used to predict signal strength in order to characterize the radio frequency channel. This will help in providing sufficient data required for the design of appropriate receivers that can recover the transmitted signal distorted due to fading and multipath effect. Methods/Statistical analysis: Data collection was carried out through drive test using TEst Mobile System, TEMS W995 phone interfaced with TEMS investigation tool version 13.1, Gstar GPS location finder and MapInfo professional and analyzed using Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) statistical tool and tenth degree polynomial for fitting measured data with empirical models. Findings: Considering the contending empirical propagation models, the Ericsson model showed a better fit for the measured path loss data with root mean squared errors of 5.86dB, 5.86dB and 5.85dB at 1.0m, 1.5m and 2.0m mobile antenna heights respectively in comparison with Okumura model which is currently in use. It also outperformed other investigated models which are; Hata, COST 231, and SUI models at 2100MHz. These findings will help in revamping radio frequency planning and system design of the investigated and similar terrains thereby optimizing overall system performance while minimizing dropped calls, handover/quality issues and other network inherent failings. Application/Improvements: Results showed a minimum error estimate within the acceptable range of 6dB for signal prediction. This model can be used for signal prediction and channel characterization of any wireless mobile environment with similar channel characteristics. The other propagation models that over predicted the radio channel could be further investigated in future work and possibly tuned to accommodate dense urban areas.
Ericsson Model, Okumura Model, Propagation Model, Path Loss, Signal Prediction
- Ibhaze AE, Ajose SO, Atayero AA-A, Idachaba FE. Developing smart cities through optimal wireless mobile network. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Innovative Business Practices for the Transformation of Societies (EmergiTech); 2016 Aug. p. 118–23. https://doi.org/10.1109/EmergiTech.2016.7737322
- Mathew S, Shylaja K, Jayasri T, Hemalatha M. Path loss prediction in wireless communication system using fuzzy logic. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2014 May; 7(5):642–7.
- Bhikshapathy B, Pandharipande VM, Mohan PGK. Mobile path loss slope for Indian suburban areas. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2012 Aug; 5(8):3110–4.
- Tapan KS, Ji Z, Kim K, Medouri A, Salazar-Palma M. A survey of various propagation models for mobile communication. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Antennas and Propagation Magazine. 2003 Jun; 45(3):51–82. https://doi.org/10.1109/ MAP.2003.1232163
- Janakiraman S, Marchamy P. Propagation characteristics of millimeter-wave band for 5G mobile communication. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 Oct; 8(26):1–5. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i26/81058
- Ibhaze AE, Ajose SO, Atayero AA, Idachaba FE. Propagation model optimization based on measurement from Macrocell sites in Ikorodu-Epe South-Western Nigeria. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on African Development Issues (CU-ICADI); 2016. p. 172–4.
- Abhayawardhana VS, Wassell IJ, Crosby D, Sellars MP, Brown MG. Comparison of empirical propagation path loss models for fixed wireless access system. Proceedings of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Conference on Vehicular Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. 2005; 1:73–7. https://doi.org/10.1109/vetecs.2005.1543252
- Mishra AR. Advanced cellular network planning and optimization:2G/2.5G/3G – Evolution. Wiley and Sons, England; 2007. p. 46–9. PMid:17055549
- Rappaport TS. Wireless communication: principles and practice. 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall Communications Engineering and Emerging Technologies series, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA; 2002 Jan10. p. 736.
- Nadir Z, Ahmad MI. Path loss determination using Okumura-Hata model and cubic regression for missing data in Oman. Proceeding of the International Multi-conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (IMECS). 2010 Mar 17–19; II:1–4. PMCid:PMC3552452
- Emagbetere JO, Edeko FO. Measurement validation of Hata-Like models for radio propagation path loss in rural environments at 1.8GHz. Journal of Mobile Communications, Medwell. 2009; 3(2):17–21.
- Ajose SO, Ezebuiro II, Ottun NO. A comparative review between Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2005 Nov; 6(2):116–20.
- Ajose SO, Imoize AL. Propagation measurements and modeling at 1800 MHz in Lagos Nigeria. International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing. 2013; 6(2):165–74. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJWMC.2013.054042
- Seybold JS. Introduction to RF propagation. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New Jersey; 2005 Sep. p. 352.
- Ekpenyong M, Robinson S, Isabona J. Macro cellular propagation prediction for wireless communications in urban environments. Georgian Electronic Scientific Journal: Computer Science and Telecommunications. 2010 Oct; 10(3):130–6.
- Ubom EA, Idigo VE, Azubogu ACO, Ohaneme CO, Alumona TL. Path loss characterization of wireless propagation for south-south region of Nigeria. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering. 2011 Jun; 3(3):478–82.
- Okumura Y, Ohmori E, Kawano T, Fukuda K. Field strength and its variability in VHF and UHF land-mobile radio services. Review of the Electrical Communications Laboratory. 1968 Oct; 16:825–73.
- Hata M. Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Transactions on Vehicular Technology. 1980 Aug; VT-29(3):317–25. https://doi.org/10.1109/ T-VT.1980.23859
- Saunders SR, Aragon-Zavala A. Antenna and propagation for wireless communications systems. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, England; 2007 Mar. p. 546.
- Alqudah YA, Tahat A. Path loss and propagation models at 3.5GHz using deployed WiMAX network. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN), Barcelonia; 2011. p. 301–5.
- Milanovic J, Rimac–Drlje S, Bejuk K. Comparison of propagation model accuracy for WiMax on 3.5GHz. 14th Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Conference on Electronic Circuits and Systems, Morocco; 2007. p. 111–4.
- Josip M, Rimac-Drlje S, Majerski I. Radio wave propagation mechanisms and empirical models for fixed wireless systems. Technical Gazette. 2010; 17:43–52.
- Sharma PK, Singh RK. Comparative analysis of propagation path loss models with field measured data. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. 2010; 2(6):2008–13.
- International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Attenuation in vegetation. ITU-R Recommendation 833-7. Geneva; 2012.
- Weissberger MA. An initial critical summary of models for predicting the attenuation of radio waves by trees. Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Center, Annapolis, Maryland, Final Report; 1982 Jul.
- Omorogiuwa O, Edeko FO. Investigation and modeling of power received at 1800 MHz in a mountainous terrain: case study of Igarra in Edo State, Ajaokuta and Okene in Kogi State. International Journal of Electrical and Power Engineering, Medwell. 2009; 3(3):129–35.
- Joshi S. Outdoor propagation models: a literature review. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE). 2012 Feb; 4(2):281–91.
- Sarkar ZK, Ji Z, Kim K, Medouri A, Salazar-Palma M. A survey of various propagation models for mobile communication. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Antennas and Propagation Magazine. 2003 Jun; 45(3):51–82. https://doi.org/10.1109/MAP.2003.1232163
- Jong YLC de, Herben HATM. A tree-scattering model for improved propagation prediction in urban microcells. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Transactions on Vehicular Technology. 2004 Mar; 53(2):503–13. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2004.823493
- Ekpenyong M, Isabona J, Ekong E. On propagation path loss models for 3-G based wireless networks: a comparative analysis. Georgian Electronic Scientific Journal: Computer Science and Telecommunications. 2010; 2(25):74–84.
- Durgin G, Rappaport TS, Hao Xu. Measurements and models for radio path loss and penetration loss in and around homes and trees at 5.85 GHz. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Transactions on Communications. 1998 Nov; 46(11):1484–96. https://doi.org/10.1109/26.729393
- Erceg V, Hari KVS, Smith MS, Baum DS, Sheikh KP, Tappenden C, Costa JM, Bushue C, Sarajedini A, Schwartz R, Branlund D, Kaitz T, Trinkwon D. Channel models for fixed wireless applications. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Working Group; 2001. p. 1–36.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.