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Assessment and Mapping of Urban Heat Island using Field Data in the New Capital Region of Andhra Pradesh, India
Objectives: To assess and map Urban Heat Island (UHI) and its intensity using field-based measurement of Land Surface Temperature (LST) in the newly formed capital region of Andhra Pradesh. Methods/Statistical Analysis: UHI development is one of the several consequences of urban sprawl and land use changes causing several environmental impacts on the urban dwellers. Assessment through field-based measurement of LST provides an instant and accurate insight into the extent and intensity of UHI. New capital region of Andhra Pradesh is having a lot of potential for urban sprawl because of the developmental activities proposed and hence taken as the case study. Using Infrared thermometer, LST was measured at 212 locations in the capital region, and corresponding locations were identified using latitudes and longitudes obtained from a hand-held GPS. LST measurements were made between 11 a.m. to 02 p.m. during the month of May, 2016. The latitude, longitude and LST data were used to develop map showing the UHI phenomenon using Arc GIS. Inverse Distance Weighted method, an interpolation algorithm available with spatial analyst module of Arc GIS, is used to develop a map showing the spatial variation of LST. Findings: From the output, it is clearly understood that UHI occurs mainly in the Vijayawada and Guntur cities. The max and min temperatures of LST measured in the study area are 50.49oC and 25.43oC respectively. UHI spreads to about 16708 hectares in Vijayawada and 25057 hectares in Guntur. Applications/Improvements: Field measured data-based analysis gives an accurate picture of the UHI in the study area. It was also found that low temperatures were recorded in areas with dense vegetation. Urban greening is the only method to reduce the UHI phenomenon and to mitigate the impacts.
Capital Region, Field Measurement, GIS, GPS, IR Thermometer, Land Surface Temperature, Urban Heat Island
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