• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2021, Volume: 14, Issue: 12, Pages: 995-1005

Original Article

Evaluation of Impact of Ethics of Yoga in the Psychological Health of College Students: A Randomized Control Trial

Received Date:07 November 2020, Accepted Date:06 December 2020, Published Date:14 April 2021


Background/Objectives: The foundational ethical principles of yoga have not been of focus and not widely known. This study was to evaluate the yoga ethics that could reduce the level of stress in college students. Methods/Statisticalanalysis :A randomized control trial was conducted. One hundred participants were randomly assigned to control group and experiment group with a duration of three months intervention and one month follow-up. The outcome measures of stress level were assessed through Bio-Well instrument. A parametric independent sample t-test for the between-group analyses and paired sample t-test for within-group analysis compared the means of two groups. Findings: There was a statistically significant reduction in the stress after the intervention (p<0.001) and follow up (p=0.035) between the group comparisons. The within-group comparisons showed high reduced in the level of stress after the intervention (p<0.001) and follow-up (p<0.01). Novelty: The current study provides preliminary evidence that the practice of ethical principles of Yama and Niyama effectively reduces the stress and may improve psychological health and well-being.

Keywords: Yoga ethics; Yama; Niyama; Stress; Psychological wellbeing; BioWell


  1. Patton GC, Coffey C, Romaniuk H, Mackinnon A, Carlin JB, Degenhardt L, et al. The prognosis of common mental disorders in adolescents: a 14-year prospective cohort study. The Lancet. 2014;383(9926):1404–1411. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(13)62116-9
  2. Auerbach RP, Mortier P, Bruffaerts R, Alonso J, Benjet C, Cuijpers P, et al. WHO WMH-ICS Collaborators. WHO world mental health surveys international college student project: prevalence and distribution of mental disorders. Journal of abnormal psychology. 2018;127(7):623–638. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000362
  3. Auerbach RP, Alonso J, Axinn WG, Cuijpers P, Ebert DD, Green JG, et al. Mental disorders among college students in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Psychological Medicine. 2016;46(14):2955–2970. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0033291716001665
  4. Bruffaerts R, Mortier P, Kiekens G, Auerbach RP, Cuijpers P, Demyttenaere K, et al. Mental health problems in college freshmen: Prevalence and academic functioning. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2018;225:97–103. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.07.044
  5. Sussman S, Arnett JJ. Emerging adulthood: developmental period facilitative of the addictions. Evaluation & the Health Professions. 2014;37(2):147–155. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163278714521812
  6. Li AW, Goldsmith CA. The effects of yoga on anxiety and stress. Alternative Medicine Review: a journal of clinical therapeutic. 2012;17(1):21–35. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22502620/
  7. Stillwell SB, Vermeesch AL, Scott JG. Interventions to Reduce Perceived Stress Among Graduate Students: A Systematic Review With Implications for Evidence-Based Practice. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing. 2017;14(6):507–513. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12250
  8. Breedvelt JJF, Amanvermez Y, Harrer M, Karyotaki E, Gilbody S, Bockting CLH, et al. The Effects of Meditation, Yoga, and Mindfulness on Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Tertiary Education Students: A Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2019;10:193. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00193
  9. Amanvermez Y, Rahmadiana M, Karyotaki E, Wit L, Ebert DD, Kessler RC. Stress management interventions for college students: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2020;(e12342) 1–27. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpsp.12342
  10. Malathi A, Damodaran A. Stress due to exams in medical students-role of yoga. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 1999;43(2):218–224. Available from: https://www.ijpp.com/IJPP archives/1999_43_2/218-224.pdf
  11. Gopal A, Mondal S, Gandhi A, Arora S, Bhattacharjee J. Effect of integrated yoga practices on immune responses in examination stress - A preliminary study. International Journal of Yoga. 2011;4(1):26–32. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.78178
  12. Gard T, Brach N, Hölzel BK, Noggle JJ, Conboy LA, Lazar SW. Effects of a yoga-based intervention for young adults on quality of life and perceived stress: The potential mediating roles of mindfulness and self-compassion. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 2012;7(3):165–175. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2012.667144
  13. Brems C. A Yoga Stress Reduction Intervention for University Faculty, Staff, and Graduate Students. International Journal of Yoga Therapy. 2015;25(1):61–77. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17761/1531-2054-25.1.61
  14. Sauer-Zavala SE, Walsh EC, Eisenlohr-Moul TA, Lykins ELB. Comparing Mindfulness-Based Intervention Strategies: Differential Effects of Sitting Meditation, Body Scan, and Mindful Yoga. Mindfulness. 2013;4(4):383–388. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0139-9
  15. Bond AR, Mason HF, Lemaster CM, Shaw SE, Mullin CS, Holick E, et al. Embodied health: the effects of a mind–body course for medical students. Medical Education Online. 2013;18:1–8. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.3402/meo.v18i0.20699
  16. Nagendra H, Kumar V, Mukherjee S. Cognitive Behavior Evaluation Based on Physiological Parameters among Young Healthy Subjects with Yoga as Intervention. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. 2015;2015:1–13. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/821061
  17. Sharma S, Nivethitha L, Mooventhan A. Effect of Moola Bandha (Perineum Contraction), A Yogic Lock on Cognitive Functions of College Students: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Religion and Health. 2020;59(3):1388–1397. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00856-0
  18. Bollimbala A, James PS, Ganguli S. The effect of Hatha yoga intervention on students' creative ability. Acta Psychologica. 2020;209:103–121. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2020.103121
  19. Cope S. The Wisdom of Yoga. New York; Bantam. 2007.
  20. Sharma VK, Trakroo M, Subramaniam V, Sahai A, Bhavanani A, Rajajeyakumar M. Effect of fast and slow pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular parameters in young health-care students. International Journal of Yoga. 2013;6(2):104–110. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.113400
  21. Wheeler EA, Santoro AN, Bembenek AF. Separating the "limbs" of yoga: limited effects on stress and mood. Journal of Religion and Health. 2019;58(6):2277–2287. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0482-1
  22. Korotkov KG. The Energy of Health: Understanding Bio-Well Analysis. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. 2017.
  23. Kushwah KK, Srinivasan TM, Nagendra HR, Ilavarasu JV. Effect of yoga based techniques on stress and health indices using electro photonic imaging technique in managers. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2016;7(2):119–123. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2015.05.001
  24. Deo G, Kumar IR, Srinivasan TM, Kushwah KK. Cumulative effect of short-term and long-term meditation practice in men and women on psychophysiological parameters of electrophotonic imaging: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 2016;13(1):73–82. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2015-0050
  25. Hegde JR, Melukote SK, Vijayendra K, Singh D. A randomized study on the energy difference measured by electro photonic image on caregivers practiced Indian aesthetic dance and yoga. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health. 2020;7(7):2770–2777. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20203013
  26. Yogananda P. Autobiography of a Yogi. 2011.
  27. Gard T, Noggle JJ, Park CL, Vago DR, Wilson A. Potential self-regulatory mechanisms of yoga for psychological health. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2014;8(770):1–20. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00770
  28. Tang YY. Mechanism of integrative body-mind training. Neuroscience Bulletin. 2011;27(6):383–388. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12264-011-1141-2
  29. Unger CA, Busse D, Yim IS. The effect of guided relaxation on cortisol and affect: Stress reactivity as a moderator. Journal of Health Psychology. 2017;22(1):29–38. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105315595118
  30. Lemay V, Hoolahan J, Buchanan A. Impact of a Yoga and Meditation Intervention on Students' Stress and Anxiety Levels. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2019;83(5):747–752. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7001
  31. AD. The Yamas & Niyamas: Exploring Yoga’s Ethical Practice (1). On-Word Bound Books: Minnesota. 2009.
  32. Eisenberg N. Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annual Review of Psychology. 2000;51:665–697. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.665
  33. Bzdok D, Schilbach L, Vogeley K, Schneider K, Laird AR, Langner R, et al. Parsing the neural correlates of moral cognition: ALE meta-analysis on morality, theory of mind, and empathy. Brain Structure and Function. 2012;217(4):783–796. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-012-0380-y


© 2021 Xu et al.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.