The K to 12 Program covers^{1}

However, Republic Act No. 7722, otherwise known as the "Higher Education Act of 1994" provides that: All Grade 12 graduates beginning Academic Year 2017-2018 are eligible to enter college regardless of the track or strand taken in the Senior High School.^{ }

This memorandum gave all graduates the chance to enrol in any college programs which are not align to the academic strand they took in the senior high school. It was observed by the proponent in her classes in Differential Calculus that even the STEM graduates are having problems in applying the basic principles in algebra, trigonometry, geometry and even the basic differentiation which are actually included in the Grade 11 curriculum.

Civil Engineering is a profession that applies the basic principles of science in conjunction with mathematical and computational tools to solve problems associated with developing and sustaining civilized life in our planet. Differential Calculus is the mathematics course offered in the first semester of its curriculum. The principles of mathematics are applicable to the day-to-day duties and routines of a civil engineering career. In order to succeed as a civil engineer, engineering students need to have a thorough understanding of algebra, trigonometry, geometry and, calculus.

Many students lack adequate prior knowledge to extract meaning from instruction. Yet we often make assumptions that they come to class possessing the skills and information to learn what we teach. Some research suggests that this assumption is erroneous and that learning is influenced as much by students’ prior knowledge as by the new instruction they receive. Attention, then, needs to be paid to this fundamental aspect of the learning process.

While good instruction is key to achieving academic success, several researchers have identified factors which are considered contributory to learners’ academic success. Teachers’ background and students’ academic achievement are found to be positively correlated, which then implies that teachers who have good qualifications in mathematics have their students performing better in mathematics.^{ }^{ }

The availability, provision and the use of teaching and learning materials go a long way to improve quality teaching which enhances academic performance. Students’ attitude towards mathematics influences the efforts they put in understanding and practicing mathematical concepts and skills. According to the National Research Council students’ beliefs about their competence and their expectations for success in school have been directly linked to their levels of engagement, as well as to emotional states that promote or interfere with their ability to be academically successful. ^{5}

Additionally, in a study on factors that affect girls’ math achievements, parental support, self-confidence, students’ interest to math, and cultural issues were pointed out as influencing factors. ^{6}

Also, in an investigation on students’ performance in Departmental Examination, it was found that study techniques were the common factor that affects the performance of the students in Mathematics. The researchers formulated an action plan to enhance the students’ performance and for the intervention program. ^{7}

Relative to enhancing math interest and achievement,^{ }an experiment on the effectiveness of a game-based learning environment was conducted. As a result of this experiment, it was found that there is an increase in students’ mathematics achievement, especially in the calculation and word problems. Moreover, the achievements of low-achieving students in the experimental school outperformed the low-achieving students in the control school (a control group in another school) in word problems. Moreover, both the low achieving students and the high-achieving students in the experimental school maintained a rather high level of interest in mathematics and in the system. ^{8}

The relationship between learning styles and mathematics performance was also investigated among middle school students in the USA and in the three top-performing East Asian countries (regions) (Hong Kong, Japan, and Korea), applying a two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) with students nested within schools to a set of PISA data. It was found that although American students are stronger competitive and cooperative learners than their East Asian peers, they are not effective users of either learning style for the improvement of mathematics performance likely because of the way that both learning styles are practiced in American mathematics classrooms. ^{9}

Meanwhile, in a review on issues related to the assessment process and to the development of assessments that can validly assess mathematical competence in all its complexity; (2) issues related to educational policy and policy-making based on assessment data, in particular the reciprocal relationship between assessment and policy; and (3) issues related to equity, such as gender issues or the achievement gap between majority and minority students. Strong relationships between the three focus areas are found, that impact assessment validity and call for further development of assessment practices in mathematics education. ^{10}

While several studies have been undertaken to understand factors affecting students’ performance in Mathematics, this study only aimed at determining the performance of the students in the diagnostic test which includes the prerequisite knowledge before taking the first mathematics course in engineering program. It also aimed to determine if there is a difference in the performance of the STEM and Non-STEM students in the different paper-and pencil tests given in the course Differential Calculus.

The findings of the proposed study will be used to design an extension program to help the students prepare their mathematical skills needed in taking any engineering program in college.

Specifically, the study aimed:

To determine the profile of the freshman civil engineering students in terms of:

Senior High School they graduated from,

School Type, and

Track taken.

To determine the performance of the students in the diagnostic test in terms of the following topics:

Algebraic Expressions

Equations

Straight Lines

Conics

Trigonometric Functions

To determine the performance of the students in the paper-and pencil test in terms of:

Mathematics Enhancement

Differential Calculus

To identify the difference in performance of the students in the paper-and pencil test when grouped according to profile variables:

Mathematics Enhancement, and

Differential Calculus;

To determine the difference in the performance of the students in Diagnostic Test when grouped according to profile variables; and

To propose a numeracy enhancement extension project based on the result of the study.

The current study used a quantitative comparative research method. Firstly, the data on profile of the college freshman students in terms of senior high school they graduated from, school type, and track taken and their performance in the diagnostic test in terms of the following topics: algebraic expressions, equations, straight lines, conics, and trigonometric functions were described. Also, this study described the performance of STEM and non-STEM students in the paper and pencil tests in mathematics enhancement and differential calculus. Finally, the difference on the performance of the college freshman students in the two areas: mathematics enhancement and differential calculus were tested. As defined, quantitative research is a means for testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables.^{ }

The study was conducted in Eastern Visayas State University Tacloban, Philippines where the college freshman students are currently enrolled and based on the existing data they come from different types of senior high schools in the Eastern Visayas Region.

A total of 131 college freshman civil engineering students from the College of Engineering of the Eastern Visayas State University were involved in the study. They were enrolled during the School Year 2019-2020.

This study used the purposive sampling technique specifically the total enumeration where all the college freshman civil engineering students in the College of Engineering were considered samples of the study.

The research instrument was a diagnostic test structured by the researcher in order to fit to the syllabus design for the mathematics course under study. Since the instrument was indigenously made by the researcher, validation was necessary

For the validation of the instrument, the trial run of the instrument was administered by the researcher to students who are not included in the study in order to determine its comprehensibility, usability, and administrability and to identify items not understood by the target participants.

The feedback from the pilot test of the instrument was used for its improvement. When the process and content have already satisfied the rigor or scientific research protocol, copies of the instrument were reproduced and administered to the target participants of the study.

To determine the profile characteristics of the freshman civil engineering students in the College of Engineering in EVSU, mean, frequency, standard deviation and percentage were employed.

To establish if there is difference on the performance of the college freshman students in mathematics enhancement and differential calculus when they are grouped according to profile variables, t-test for independent samples and ANOVA were used.

The level of significance was set at 5%.

The presentation of the results follows the arrangement of the objectives of the study, to wit: profile of the freshman civil engineering students; performance of the students in the diagnostics test in Mathematics particularly in algebraic expressions, equations, straight lines, conics, trigonometric functions; difference in the performance of the students in the paper-and-pencil test according to the profile variables; and finally, difference in the performance of the students in the diagnostic test according to profile variables.

It can be noted in

Under the school type, public school got the highest frequency of 68 and a percentage of 51.9 while private school with 63 frequency and a percentage of 48.1. This result implies that there are more public senior high schools students who were enrolled in Civil Engineering.

In terms of track, STEM is more dominant compared with the Non-STEM. STEM track has the frequency of 88 with a percentage of 67.2 while, non-STEM has the frequency of 43 with a percentage of 32.8. This indicates that more students are now taking up tracks in senior high school that are preparatory to Science and Technology courses. According to the report of the Department of Education (DepEd), the number of students who became interested in Science and Technology (S&T) has significantly increased to 60 percent all throughout the years. ^{12}

Profile Variable | Group | Frequency (n = 131) | Percent (100.0) |

Senior High School | Tacloban City | 67 | 51.1 |

Leyte | 37 | 28.2 | |

Biliran | 6 | 4.6 | |

Samar | 19 | 14.5 | |

Outside R8 | 2 | 1.5 | |

School Type | Public | 68 | 51.9 |

Private | 63 | 48.1 | |

Track | STEM | 88 | 67.2 |

Non-STEM | 43 | 32.8 |

Topics | Grade | Qualitative Description | Frequency (n = 131) | % (100.0) | Mean | SD |

Algebraic Functions | 91 – 95 | Excellent | 1 | 0.8 | 73.48 | 6.534 |

86 – 90 | Superior | 5 | 3.8 | |||

81 – 85 | Very Good | 14 | 10.7 | |||

76 – 80 | Good | 30 | 22.9 | |||

75 | Passed | 0 | 0.0 | |||

70 – 74 | Conditional Failure | 46 | 35.1 | |||

65 - 69 | Failure | 35 | 26.7 | |||

Equations | 91 – 95 | Excellent | 4 | 3.1 | 69.15 | 9.648 |

86 – 90 | Superior | 5 | 3.8 | |||

81 – 85 | Very Good | 0 | 0.0 | |||

76 – 80 | Good | 24 | 18.3 | |||

75 | Passed | 0 | 0.0 | |||

70 – 74 | Conditional Failure | 41 | 31.3 | |||

65 - 69 | Failure | 57 | 43.5 | |||

Straight Lines | 91 – 95 | Excellent | 1 | 0.8 | 68.82 | 9.644 |

86 – 90 | Superior | 0 | 0.0 | |||

81 – 85 | Very Good | 19 | 14.5 | |||

76 – 80 | Good | 0 | 0.0 | |||

75 | Passed | 32 | 24.4 | |||

70 – 74 | Conditional Failure | 0 | 0.0 | |||

65 - 69 | Failure | 79 | 60.3 | |||

Conics | 91 – 95 | Excellent | 0 | 0.0 | 68.98 | 8.727 |

86 – 90 | Superior | 7 | 5.3 | |||

81 – 85 | Very Good | 0 | 0.0 | |||

76 – 80 | Good | 26 | 19.8 | |||

75 | Passed | 0 | 0.0 | |||

70 – 74 | Conditional Failure | 43 | 32.8 | |||

65 - 69 | Failure | 55 | 42.0 | |||

Trigonometric Functions | 91 – 95 | Excellent | 0 | 0.0 | 67.64 | 7.489 |

86 – 90 | Superior | 2 | 1.5 | |||

81 – 85 | Very Good | 0 | 0.0 | |||

76 – 80 | Good | 20 | 15.3 | |||

75 | Passed | 0 | 0.0 | |||

70 – 74 | Conditional Failure | 45 | 34.4 | |||

65 - 69 | Failure | 64 | 48.9 |

The third problem of this study dealt with the performance of the students in the paper-and pencil tests when grouped according to profile variables.

Grade | Qualitative Description | SHS Graduated | Frequency (n = 131) | % (100.0) | |||||

Tacloban City | Leyte | Bilira | Samar | Outside Region VIII | |||||

Math Enhance ment | 91-95 | Excellent | 8 | 3 | 2 | 7 | 1 | 21 | 16.0 |

86-90 | Superior | 17 | 8 | 3 | 5 | 0 | 33 | 25.2 | |

81-85 | Very Good | 19 | 14 | 0 | 3 | 1 | 37 | 28.2 | |

76-80 | Good | 16 | 12 | 1 | 3 | 0 | 32 | 24.4 | |

75 | Passed | 3 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 3 | 2.3 | |

70-74 | Conditional Failure | 2 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.3 | |

65-69 | Failure | 2 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 1.5 | |

Mean | 82.94 | 83.38 | 88.00 | 86.84 | 89.00 | ||||

SD | 6.242 | 4.518 | 5.177 | 6.274 | 7.071 | ||||

Differential Calculus | 91-95 | Excellent | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0.0 |

86-90 | Superior | 3 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 6 | 4.6 | |

81-85 | Very Good | 15 | 3 | 4 | 8 | 1 | 31 | 23.7 | |

76-80 | Good | 18 | 14 | 1 | 5 | 0 | 38 | 29.0 | |

75 | Passed | 5 | 4 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 10 | 7.6 | |

70-74 | Conditional Failure | 16 | 11 | 0 | 3 | 0 | 30 | 22.9 | |

65-69 | Failure | 10 | 5 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 16 | 12.2 | |

Mean | 75.93 | 75.05 | 83.83 | 78.95 | 87.00 | ||||

SD | 5.558 | 4.262 | 3.189 | 5.390 | 4.243 |

The performance of the students in the paper-and pencil tests by school type suggests that mean grade of the students in the public schools are higher than the students in the private school both for mathematics enhancement (Public: 84.63 > Private: 83.22) and Differential Calculus (Public: 77.72 > 75.49). The results implied that performance of students in either public or private schools have a very slight difference as revealed in the computed mean grades.

PP Test | Grade | Qualitative Description | SCHOOL TYPE | Frequency (n = 131) | % (100.0) | |

Public | Private | |||||

Math Enhancement | 91 – 95 | Excellent | 14 | 7 | 21 | 16.0 |

86 – 90 | Superior | 18 | 15 | 33 | 25.2 | |

81 – 85 | Very Good | 16 | 21 | 37 | 28.2 | |

76 – 80 | Good | 16 | 16 | 32 | 24.4 | |

75 | Passed | 1 | 2 | 3 | 2.3 | |

70 – 74 | Conditional Failure | 2 | 1 | 3 | 2.3 | |

65 - 69 | Failure | 1 | 1 | 2 | 1.5 | |

Mean | 84.63 | 83.22 | ||||

SD | 6.227 | 5.572 | ||||

Differential Calculus | 91 – 95 | Excellent | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0.0 |

86 – 90 | Superior | 4 | 2 | 6 | 4.6 | |

81 – 85 | Very Good | 22 | 9 | 31 | 23.7 | |

76 – 80 | Good | 16 | 22 | 38 | 29.0 | |

75 | Passed | 3 | 7 | 10 | 7.6 | |

70 – 74 | Conditional Failure | 18 | 12 | 30 | 22.9 | |

65 - 69 | Failure | 5 | 11 | 16 | 12.2 | |

Mean | 77.72 | 75.49 | ||||

SD | 5.622 | 5.325 |

The performance of the students in the paper-and pencil tests by track suggests that mean grade of the students in the STEM are higher than the students in the Non-STEM both for mathematics enhancement (STEM: 84.55 > Non-STEM: 82.74) and differential calculus (STEM: 77.33 > Non-STEM: 75.26).

PP Test | Grade | Qualitative Description | TRACK | Frequency (n = 131) | %(100.0) | |

STEM | Non-STEM | |||||

Math Enhancement | 91 – 95 | Excellent | 19 | 2 | 21 | 16.0 |

86 – 90 | Superior | 23 | 10 | 33 | 25.2 | |

81 – 85 | Very Good | 22 | 15 | 37 | 28.2 | |

76 – 80 | Good | 17 | 15 | 32 | 24.4 | |

75 | Passed | 2 | 1 | 3 | 2.3 | |

70 – 74 | Conditional Failure | 3 | 0 | 3 | 2.3 | |

65 – 69 | Failure | 2 | 0 | 2 | 1.5 | |

Mean | 84.55 | 82.74 | ||||

SD | 6.414 | 4.665 | ||||

Differential Calculus | 91 – 95 | Excellent | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0.0 |

86 – 90 | Superior | 4 | 2 | 6 | 4.6 | |

81 – 85 | Very Good | 28 | 3 | 31 | 23.7 | |

76 – 80 | Good | 25 | 13 | 38 | 29.0 | |

75 | Passed | 6 | 4 | 10 | 7.6 | |

70 – 74 | Conditional Failure | 14 | 16 | 30 | 22.9 | |

65 – 69 | Failure | 11 | 5 | 16 | 12.2 | |

Mean | 77.33 | 75.26 | ||||

SD | 5.743 | 4.986 |

It can be deduced from the data presented that senior high school students who graduated from STEM have better performance compared with those students who graduated from Non-STEM, in both math enhancement and differential calculus paper and pencil test but with a slight difference only.

And further analysis of the results were treated using the post-hoc test as shown in

Profile Variable | Group | Test Statistic | p-value | Interpretation |

Senior High School | Tacloban City | F = 5.624 | <0.01 | Significant |

Leyte* | ||||

Southern Leyte | ||||

Biliran* | ||||

Eastern Samar | ||||

Samar | ||||

Outside R8 | ||||

School Type | Private | t = 1.444 | 0.151 | Not Significant |

Public | ||||

Track | STEM | t = 1.039 | 0.301 | Not Significant |

Non-STEM |

PPT
Levene Statistic
p-value
Interpretation
Pairwise Comparison
Mean Difference
p-value
Interpretation
Diagnostic Test
1.710
0.152
Equal Variances Assumed
Leyte*Biliran
7.56757
0.013
Significant

It terms of senior high school where respondents graduated from, it can be inferred that there is significant difference among the group of schools they graduated from (F = 2.916, p<0.05) in mathematics enhancement and in differential calculus (F = 7.227, p<0.05). It implies that school graduated may influence the benefits of getting good grades or perform better in a test.

In terms of school type and track, it can be inferred that there are significant differences in the performance of students in differential calculus when grouped by school type (t = 2.33, p<0.05) and track (t = 2.124, p<0.05). These further indicate that there is a difference in the performance of the students in public and private and STEM and Non-STEM.

Profile Variable | PP Test | Group | Mean | Standard Deviation | Test Statistics | p-value | Interpretation |

Senior High School Graduated | Math Enhancement | Tacloban City | 82.9403 | 6.24228 | F = 2.916 | 0.024 | Significant |

Leyte | 83.3784 | 4.51757 | |||||

Biliran | 88.0000 | 5.17687 | |||||

Samar | 86.8421 | 5.27396 | |||||

Outside Region VIII | 89.0000 | 5.94056 | |||||

Differential Calculus | Tacloban City | 75.9254 | 5.55772 | F = 7.227 | <0.01 | Significant | |

Leyte | 75.0541 | 4.26188 | |||||

Biliran | 83.8333 | 3.18852 | |||||

Samar | 78.9474 | 5.39005 | |||||

Outside Region VIII | 87.0000 | 4.24264 | |||||

School Type | Math Enhancement | Public | 84.6324 | 6.22682 | t =1.368 | 0.174 | Not Significant |

Private | 83.2222 | 5.57195 | |||||

Differential Calculus | Public | 77.7206 | 5.62204 | t = 2.330 | 0.021 | Significant | |

Private | 75.4921 | 5.32454 | |||||

TRACK | Math Enhancement | STEM | 84.5455 | 6.41462 | t = 1.640 | 0.103 | Not Significant |

Non-STEM | 82.7442 | 4.66544 | |||||

Differential Calculus | STEM | 77.3295 | 5.74300 | t = 2.124 | 0.036 | Significant | |

Non-STEM | 75.2558 | 4.98614 |

The post-hoc test was utilized in this study since significant results were found in the analysis of variance. Post-Hoc test is a priori test for which a specific pairwise group differs where it is performed when the results of an ANOVA yielded a significant F-statistics. It is classified into equal variances assumed and unequal variances assumed.

For the Mathematics Enhancement, the ANOVA shows significant results but the post-hoc test does not, this implies that the data is not sufficient to make statements about pairwise comparisons because some groups have smaller sample sizes which lead to loss of statistical significance for comparing two groups.

For Differential Calculus, The Levene statistic is a test for homogeneity of variances, as can be gleaned from the table, the p-value (0.146 > 0.05) is thus interpreted, as equal variances assumed. Further, the Scheffe post-hoc test is deemed appropriate in exploring all the simple and complex comparisons, equal variances assumed, and unequal group sizes in terms of senior high school where the students graduated (Samuels, 2016). Only significant pairwise comparisons are shown. The table shows that there is a meaningful difference in the means of the groups being compared: Tacloban City and Biliran; Leyte and Biliran; and Outside Region VIII and Leyte.

PPT | Levene Statistic | p-value | Interpretation | Pairwise Comparison | Mean Difference | p-value | Interpretation |

Differential Calculus | 1.735 | 0.146 | Equal Variances Assumed | Tacloban City*Biliran | 7.90796 | 0.004 | Significant |

Leyte*Biliran | 8.77928 | 0.002 | Significant | ||||

Outside Region VIII*Leyte | 11.94595 | 0.039 | Significant |

Based on the results of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) Majority of the freshman students in civil engineering program are graduates from public Senior High Schools in Tacloban City under the STEM track; (2) A number of civil engineering students in EVSU failed in algebraic expressions. Equations, straight lines, conics, and trigonometry as reflected in their performance in the diagnostic test; (3) The civil engineering students performed better in math enhancement and differential calculus as reflected in their mean grade average that range from passed to superior when group according to senior high school graduated from, type of school, and track; (4) The performance of students in diagnostic test when grouped according to senior high school they graduated from was found significant, while performance of students in diagnostic test when grouped according to the school type and were found not significant; (5) Finally, the performance of the students in math enhancement in the paper and pencil tests when grouped according to profile variables was found significant at least in senior high school they graduated from but not significant when grouped according to school type and track. While, significant results yielded when performance of the students in differential calculus in paper and pencil tests when grouped according to all profile variables.

Based on the conclusions given, the following are hereby recommended:

Identify the specific schools in Tacloban City that offer Senior High School Programs who are enrolled under STEM Track and those low performing in Mathematics.

Develop modules to enhance numeracy skills of STEM Senior High School Students particularly on topics of algebraic expressions, equations, straight lines, conics, and trigonometric functions.

Institutionalize and propose an extension project to enhance the numeracy skills of STEM Senior High Schools students in Tacloban City.

In-depth study of profiling of STEM senior high school students on their numeracy skills be conducted that would serve as inputs to a more meaningful extension project of mathematics teachers of the University.