• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Issue: 33, Pages: 3409-3424

Original Article

A three-tier cluster-based routing protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks

Received Date:18 June 2020, Accepted Date:12 August 2020, Published Date:10 September 2020


Background/Objectives: Based on the recent advances in the area of wireless networking, computing, and storage devices, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has emerged as an evolving and future-enabled technology in recent decades. The objective of the research work is to design, analyse, and evaluate the performance of A Three-Tier Cluster-Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks. Methods/Statistical analysis: The proposed protocol is based on autonomous sensor nodes, distributed techniques on cluster development; cluster heads collected at random, multi-hop routing method, and transferring the data towards the base station used by the assistance of MDC maximum residual energy LEACH. Findings: WSN is used globally in different forms of networking technologies; these systems come with the ability to be applied worldwide at an unrivaled scale and to add a consistent viewpoint to production. Routing protocols in these networks act as middleware, which is responsible for enhancing the network performance with less energy consumption and the cluster-based routing protocol is a massive solution to improve node’s energy efficiency and reliability of data toward the base station. Moreover, the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol achieves not only better network lifetime and data reliability but also decreased energy dissipation of the sensor nodes when compared with prominent WSN cluster-based routing protocols. Novelty/Applications:The main outcomes of MDC maximum residual energy LEACH are: Minimize the energy consumption of sensor nodes, Enhance the overall network lifetime, Resolve communication (energy and routing) holes issues, Maintain data reliability, and finally reach tradeoff between energy efficiency and latency in terms of End-to-End and channel access delays. This proposed protocol has been substantially applicable in an extensive variety of environmental and civil surveillance applications.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network; mobile data collector; three-tier architecture; data gathering method; cluster-based routing


  1. Sumathi J, Velusamy RL. A review on distributed cluster based routing approaches in mobile wireless sensor networks. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing. 2020. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12652-020-02088-7
  2. Akyildiz IF, Su W, Sankarasubramaniam Y, Cayirci E. A survey on sensor networks. IEEE Communications Magazine. 2002;40(8):102–114. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mcom.2002.1024422
  3. Fissaoui ME, Beni-Hssane A, Saadi M. Energy efficient and fault tolerant distributed algorithm for data aggregation in wireless sensor networks. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing. 2019;10(2):569–578. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12652-018-0704-8
  4. Sujeethnanda M, Kumar S, Ramamurthy G. Mobile wireless sensor networks: a cognitive approach. (pp. 491-518) 2013.
  5. Siddiqui AF, Jibran R, Saeed M, Arshad M, Touheed N. Mobile Data Collector Routing Protocol Scheme for Scalable Dense Wireless Sensor Network to Optimize Node’s Life. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications. 2018. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.14569/ijacsa.2018.090967
  6. Arshad M, Aalsalem MY, Farhan A, Siddqui. Energy Efficient Cluster Head Selection in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (JESTEC). 2014;9(6):728–746. Available from: http://jestec.taylors.edu.my/Vol%209%20Issue%206%20December%2014/Volume%20(9)%20Issue%20(6)%20728-746.pdf
  7. Farhan A, Siddiqui M, Saeed JR, Khan M, Arshad N, Touheed. WSN Multi-Tier MDC GRID based Routing Protocol to mitigate Financial Impact. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security (IJCSNS). 2017;17(11):20–27.
  8. Dhand G, Tyagi SS. Data Aggregation Techniques in WSN:Survey. Procedia Computer Science. 2016;92:378–384. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.07.393
  9. Khalifeh A, Abid H, Darabkh KA. Optimal Cluster Head Positioning Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2020;20(13):3719. doi: 10.3390/s20133719
  10. Priyadarshi R, Rawat P, Nath V, Acharya B, Shylashree N. Three level heterogeneous clustering protocol for wireless sensor network. Microsystem Technologies. 2020. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-020-04874-x
  11. Shepard TJ. A channel access scheme for large dense packet radio networks. In: ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review. (Vol. 26, pp. 219-230) Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). 1996.
  12. Gharaei N, Bakar KA, Hashim SM, Pourasl AH, Siraj M, Darwish T. An Energy-Efficient Mobile Sink-Based Unequal Clustering Mechanism for WSNs. Sensors. 2017;17:1858. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s17081858


© 2020 Arshad et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee).


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.