• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Issue: 12, Pages: 1293-1299

Original Article

Hybrid warfare and social media: need and scope of digital literacy

Received Date:30 March 2020, Accepted Date:24 April 2020, Published Date:03 May 2020


Background/Objectives: With the advent of communication technologies and emergence of web 2.0, the dynamics of war are also shifting from traditional warfare to information warfare. Therefore, the role of modern information and communication technologies is very important to study in the context of hybrid warfare where social media is being used as an effective weapon. This study aimed to highlight the problems and need of information literacy among the social media users of Pakistan. Conceptually, the study will take roots from hybrid war literature and digital literacy. Method: Methodologically, a survey from the social media users of Pakistan has been carried out for this study. As part of the study, development of a Hybrid War Awareness and Digital Literacy Scales to understand, detect and respond to the hybrid threats was done. Population of the study were the university students of Punjab in Pakistan. Purposively selection of 300 respondents (Male=164, Female=136) from three universities of Punjab: University of the Punjab, Lahore (N=106), University of Gujrat, Gujrat (N=122) and University of Sialkot, Sialkot (N=72). Students were included from BS programs (N=168), Master programs (N=102), and M.Phil. /Ph.D. Programs (N=30). Data was collected with the help of questionnaires. Findings: The study indicates that university students are being exposed to propaganda messages. The study reveals that university students are active in functional use of social media. Therefore, this alarming situation demands the enhancement of digital media skills among the students of higher education through proper training and learning. Moreover, critical and creative abilities of students are less as compared to the functional abilities of students in consuming social media or internet. Recommendations: Critical and creative abilities are to be enhanced for countering compete the hybrid warfare on social media.

Keywords: Hybrid War; Propaganda; Digital Literacy; Social Media


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Copyright: © 2020 Aslam, Hayat, Ali. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


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