• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2021, Volume: 14, Issue: 30, Pages: 2517-2525

Original Article

Microgrid Designing for Electrical Two-Wheeler Charging Station Supported by Solar PV and Fuel Cell

Received Date:06 February 2021, Accepted Date:29 July 2021, Published Date:17 September 2021


Background/Objectives: One of the main objectives of this work is to design a microgrid for charging station of electric two-wheelers, which contains a public grid, fuel-cells (FCs) & solar PV plants as power sources. Methods/Statistical analysis: This work has used 6 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel-Cells (PEMFC) and 6 kW solar PV plant with electric grid as a power source to incorporate a microgrid. The charging of EV battery is tested during different modes of operations and compared to each other. Findings: This paper describes that microgrid is eco-friendly and the use of solar PV & FCs in microgrid systems makes it more reliable & environment sustainable with power-efficient technologies simulated with MATLAB Simulink. Novelty/Applications: The proposed arrangement helps to create an efficient, low-cost, locally resilient microgrid. This will reduce the dependency on the electric grid during peak load time which is an imminent concern in cosmopolitan cities and which is novel contribution of this paper. This arrangement is also helpful when grid power is unavailable. The model was found to be satisfactorily charging the batteries used for two-wheeler and the charging rates of each method are compared to one another.

Keywords: Solar PV; FuelCell; Battery Charging; Electric Vehicles (EV’s);Microgrid


  1. Domínguez NJA, Dufo-López R, Yusta LJM, Artal SJS, Bernal AJL. Design of an electric vehicle fast-charging station with integration of renewable energy and storage systems. Electrical Power and Energy Systems. 2019;105(1):46–58.
  2. Kirubakaran A, Jain S, Nema RK. A review on fuel cell technologies and power electronic interface. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2009;13:2430–2440.
  3. Samy MM, Barakat S, Ramadan HS. A flower pollination optimization algorithm for an off-grid PV-Fuel cell hybrid renewable system. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2018;p. 1–12.
  4. Benyahia N, Tamalouzt S, Denoun H, Badji A, Bousbaine A, Moualek R, et al. Implementation of Fuel Cell and Photovoltaic Panels Based DC Micro Grid Prototype for Electric Vehicles Charging Station. In: Advances in Renewable Hydrogen and Other Sustainable Energy Carriers. (pp. 291-298) Springer. 2021.
  5. Li H, Rezvani A, Hu J, Ohshima K. Optimal day-ahead scheduling of microgrid with hybrid electric vehicles using MSFLA algorithm considering control strategies. Sustainable Cities and Society. 2021;66(102681).
  6. Roy JV, Leemput N, Geth F, Büscher J, Salenbien R, Driesen J. Electric vehicle charging in an office building microgrid with distributed energy resources. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. 2014;5(4):1389–1396.
  7. Alam M, Kumar K, Verma S, Dutta V. Renewable sources based DC microgrid using hydrogen energy storage: Modelling and experimental analysis. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assesments. 2020;42:1–19.
  8. Allagui H, Mzoughi D, Bouaicha A, Mami A. Modeling and simulation of 1.2 kW Nexa PEM fuel cell system. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016;9(9):1–8.
  9. Ochoa GV, Blanco C, Martinez C, Ramos E. Fuzzy Adaptive Control Applied to a Hybrid Electric-Power Generation System (HEPGS) Indian Journal of Science Technololgy. 2017;10(41):1–9.
  10. Andari W, Ghozzi S, Allagui H, Mami A. Optimization of hydrogen consumption for fuel cell hybrid vehicle. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2018;11(2):1–9.
  11. Corchero C, Cruz ZM, Heredia FJ, Cairo JI, Igualada GL, Romero OA. Optimal sizing of microgrids: a fast-charging station case. In: 9th Int. Conf. on the European Energy Market. (pp. 1-6) 2012.
  12. Guo Y, Xiong S, Xu S, Su W. Two-stage economic operation of microgrid-like electric vehicle parking deck. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 2016;7(3):1703–1712.
  13. Mouli C, Ram G, Bauer P, Zeman M. System design for a solar powered electric vehicle charging station for workplaces. Applied Energy. 2016;168(1):434–443.
  14. Armstrong M, Moussa C, Adnot J, Galli A, Rivière P. Optimal recharging strategy for battery-switch stations for electric vehicles in France. Energy Policy. 2012;60(1):569–582.
  15. Hwang JJ, Lai LK, Wu W, Chang WR. Dynamic modeling of a photovoltaic hydrogen fuel cell hybrid system. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2003;34(1):9531–9573.
  16. Ghosh PC, Emonts B, Janben H, Mergel J, Stolten D. Ten years of operational experience with a hydrogen-based renewable energy supply system. Solar Energy. 2003;75(1):469–78.
  17. Lotfi H, Khodaei A. AC versus DC Microgrid Planning. IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid. 2017;8(1):296–304.
  18. Mohamed A, Salehi V, Ma T, Mohammed O. Real-time energy management algorithm for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging parks involving sustainable energy. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. 2014;5(2):577–586.
  19. Goli P, Shireen W. PV integrated smart charging of phevs based on dc link voltage sensing. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 2014;5(3):1421–1428. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2013.2286745
  20. Bhatti G, Singh RR. Design of a Microgrid Architecture for Rental E-Bike Charging Stations. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2020;906(12009).
  21. Atumobile. Available from: https://atumobile.co
  22. Yadav RS, Dhaked DK, Jaiswal A. Comparative study of MPPT techniques for solar PV-based system. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development. 2021;20(3-4):366–380.
  23. Dhaked DK, Gopal Y, Birla D. Battery charging optimization of solar energy based telecom sites in India. Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research. 2019;9:5041–5047.


© 2021 Dhaked & Birla. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.