Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Year: 2023, Volume: 16, Issue: 5, Pages: 377-384
B P Ushamohan1*, Aravind Kumar Rajasekaran2, Yamini Keshavaprasad Belur2, Judu Ilavarasu1, T M Srinivasan1
1Division of Yoga and Physical Sciences, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA), Bengaluru, India
2Department of Speech Pathology & Audiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, 560 029, India
Email: [email protected]
Received Date:08 June 2022, Accepted Date:20 July 2022, Published Date:11 February 2023
Background: Nitric Oxide has been recently recognized as an extremely important molecule in biophysics that has a profound role in the regulation of various functions in the body. It is abundant and continuously replenished in the paranasal sinuses of the respiratory system in healthy adults. Studies have demonstrated that nasal Nitric Oxide levels in the airways increase multifold during humming compared to quiet nasal exhalation. Humming during exhalation is an integral part of Bhramari Pranayama. Objectives: This review is to understand how humming is associated with Nitric Oxide production, and evaluate the suitability of Bhramari Pranayama, and the classical version of Bhramari Pranayama, which has humming as its integral part, for the application of maintenance of the airway integrity. Method: We have searched relevant current scientific literature pertaining to Nitric Oxide, voice production especially humming. We also reviewed the classical yoga texts where Bhramari Pranayama is elaborated. We tried to correlate how Bhramari Pranayama may help to endogenously produce Nitric Oxide and thereby regulate various respiratory functions. We made special efforts to distinguish between general and classical versions of the practice of Bhramari Pranayama. Findings: Experimental evidence suggests that humming significantly influences Nitric Oxide production. Bhramari Pranayama which has humming as its integral part may therefore facilitate Nitric Oxide production endogenously, both during inhalation and exhalation, and thereby help in the regulation of respiratory processes. Novelty: Research to date, has been done on increased expression of Nitric Oxide during humming (during exhalation). The classical version of Bhramari Pranayama which also includes humming during inhalation also known as inhalation phonation, alternating with humming during exhalation seems to offer a wholesome solution for increased stimulation of Nitric Oxide as well as the optimal end use of the much sought-after molecule.
Keywords: Nitric Oxide; Humming; Bhramari Pranayama; Para Nasal Sinuses; Inhalation Phonation
© 2023 Ushamohan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)
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