Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Year: 2011, Volume: 4, Issue: 3, Pages: 333-335
Dept. of Biosciences, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam, Anantapur Dist., AP-515134
Plant tissue culture offers tremendous opportunities in plant propagation, plant improvement and production of plants with desirable agronomical features. It is now possible to develop methods for virus free plant regeneration, salinity tolerance, herbicide resistance, disease resistance, frost resistance, incorporation of high protein content and genetically engineer plants for desirable traits. The medicinal plants are rich in secondary plant products (active principles) are termed medicinal; exert a profound physiological effect on man, curing many ailments and diseases of man. In vitro grown plant cells and tissues have been used extensively for the production of secondary metabolites, which are the source of various pharmaceutical and industrial products. Crop plants play an important role in the human nutrition and health by providing carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, phytosterols and dietary fibers. Plants can be used to produce pharmaceutical proteins for immunization, enzyme therapy or as a precursor for any pharmaceutical products. Transgenic plants can be used as bio-factories for producing pharmaceutical and industrial chemicals and raw materials. Plant tissue cultures were used in achieving a specific biotransformation to produce a cardiovascular steroid digoxin or methyl digoxin from digitoxin of Digitalis lanata. Cell cultures of Stevia rebaudiana can convert steviol into steviobiocide and stevioside which are 100 times sweeter than cane sugar. The role of plant tissue culture in meeting the ever increasing demand and requirements of man in the field of agriculture, forest, horticulture and medicine is highly impressive.
Keywords: Embryo culture, protoplast culture, somatic hybridization, secondary metabolites, micropropagation.
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