• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2017, Volume: 10, Issue: 32, Pages: 1-9

Original Article

Prevalence of Human Malaria Infection and its Transmission Pattern in the Highlands and Lowlands of Plateau State, Nigeria


Objectives: To quantify the prevalence of Plasmodium species and transmission patterns of human malaria in the highland and lowland areas of Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Malaria prevalence studies were conducted from November, 2015 through to October, 2016. Microscopic examination using thin and thick blood smears was employed. Determination of malaria parasite presence and Plasmodium species identification was carried out using X100 objectives under oil immersion. Chi square (χ2 ) statistics was used to test statistical significance of the relationship between sex, age and occupation. Findings: The results show the overall prevalence of malaria infection in the study area was 48.1%. The most prevalent malaria parasite recorded in this study was Plasmodium falciparum (94.1%). This was followed by Plasmodium malariae (5.9%). Sex related prevalence by LGA show that infection did not differ significantly in all the LGAs (P> 0.05) except in Barkin Ladi LGA where males had significantly higher infection than females (P< 0.05). Prevalence of malaria parasites was significantly associated with age in all the LGAs (p<0.05) except for Jos-North LGA (p>0.05). In these LGAs, infection was highest in age-group 5-9 and 6-14 years with the lowest infection recorded in age-group 35 years and above. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection differs significantly by occupation in all the LGAs (p< 0.05) except for Jos-North LGA (p> 0.05). Transmission occurred all year round. In the highlands, transmission peaked in June whereas in the lowlands, it peaked in July. The variation in transmission patterns observed in this study will be informative in planning programmes geared towards controlling the disease. Application/Improvements: This study has provided a better understanding of the epidemiology of malaria in Plateau state which will help in formulating specific and efficient intervention strategies.

Keywords: Malaria, Nigeria, Prevalence, Plateau State, Transmission Pattern 


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