Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Year: 2008, Volume: 1, Issue: 3, Pages: 1-7
A. Madani and S. K. Jain*
Department of Biotechnology, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India.
*Author for the correspondence:
S. K. Jain
Department of Biotechnology, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Typhoid fever (TY) is an acute systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. While the developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to TF, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of Terminalia belerica and Punica granatum, confer protection against experimentally induced salmonellosis. Clearance of bacteria from reticuloendothelial system is increased in a time dependent manner. Drugs enhance the delayedtype hypersensitivity reaction against S. typhimurium. Parallel to the activation of delayedtype hypersensitivity reaction, drugs reduced the amount of persistent bacteria in livers and provide cytoprotection against ill effect of bacteria. The cytokines act as communication molecules between host cells in the defense against the enteric pathogen, especially in Salmonella. A significant decrease was observed in the IL-1α concentration in serum of S. typhimurium infected mice that were pretreated with drugs. These results correlate with the fact that both Tb and Pg have the capacity in involvement of the induction of immune response as a mechanism of protection against typhoid.
Key words: Typhoid fever, T. belerica, P. granatum, anti-Salmonella activity, survival, DTH and cytokine
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