• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Issue: 19, Pages: 1944-1954

Original Article

Scanning electron microscopy of A scaridia galli in Gallus gallus domesticus in Lucknow, U.P, India

Received Date:12 April 2020, Accepted Date:23 April 2020, Published Date:18 June 2020


Background/objectives: Ascaridia galli (Schrank) is a well-known nematode parasite of poultry birds. Heavy infection causes an economic loss to the poultry farmers. Information related to its detailed morphological and anatomical structure is inadequate. A study of ultrastructure has revealed the possibility of differentiating the nematodes. Methodology: Ascaridia galli were collected from the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) from Lucknow, UP. Scanning electron microscopy was used for the detailed identification of Ascaridia galli. Findings: Scanning electron microscopy exposed that mouth was surrounded with three trilobed lips. Internal rim of each lip was surrounded with fine teeth, and sensory papillae on the outside. Annulations of cuticle occur on the body surface, which is further divided into subannuli. Posterior end of male was pointed and curved having a precloacal sucker and anus. Females had a blunt and straight tail with an anus at ventral side. Caudal papillae and the lateral caudal alae are the tiny outgrowths which surrounds the each side of posterior opening. A sclerotized ring bounded to precloacal sucker was present. These signs of Ascaridia galli attained in the present study could be helpful in the taxonomical studies of nematode worms. Development of control strategies is very essential by understanding the host–parasite relationships. For this purpose, identification of nematode parasite will be very useful. Novelty/ contribution: The present study was designed to understand the morphology of A. galli. Therefore, these markers could be helpful in the taxonomical status of ascaridia nematode worms in domestic fowl.

Keywords: Domestic fowl; A galli; Precloacal sucker; Trilobed lips; Caudal papillae; Scanning electron microscopy


  1. Permin A, Ranvig H. Genetic resistance to Ascaridia galli infections in chickens. Veterinary Parasitology. 2001;102(1-2):101–111. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4017(01)00525-8
  2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service (ERS) In: Red Meat and Poultry Yearbooks. (pp. 1997-2010) U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service (ERS). 2011.
  3. Thompson DP, Geary TG. Helminth surfaces: structural, molecular and functional properties. In: Marr J, TN, RK., eds. In: Molecular Medical Parasitology. (pp. 297-338) London, UK. Academic Press. 2003.
  4. RM, Nambiar R. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Animal Production and Health Proceedings The poultry industry in India. In: OT, DP., eds. Poultry in the 21stCentury: Avian Influenza and Beyond. (pp. 29-30) 2007.
  5. Oniye SJ, Audu PA, Adebate DA, Kwaghe BB, Ajanusi OJ. Survey of Helminth Parasites of laughing dove (Strepto peliasenegalensis. African journal of natural sciences. 2001;4:65–66.
  6. Frantovo D. Some parasitic nematodes (neumatoda) of birds (aves) in the Czech Republic. Acta Societatis Zoological Bohemicae. 2000;16(1):13–28.
  7. Butcher GD, Hogsette JA, Jacobs RD, et al. Nematode Parasites of Poultry (and where to find them) Animal Science Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. 1997. Available from: https://www.scribd.com/document/109402600/Cap-Ilaria
  8. Schmidt GD, Roberts LS, et al. Foundations of Parasitology. (5th ). (pp. 355-465) Dubuque, Iowa. Wm. C. Brown Publishers. 1996.
  9. Grewal PS, Ehlers RU, Shapiro-Ilan D. Nematodes as Biocontrol Agents. 2005.
  10. Croll NA. The Organization of Nematodes. (pp. 123-182) 1976.
  11. Lee D. The Physiology of Nematodes. San Francisco. W.H. Freeman and Company. 1965.
  12. Croll N, Matthews BE. Biology of Nematodes. (pp. 1-152) Blackie & Son Ltd. 1977.
  13. Yamaguti S, Systema, Helminthum. The nematodes of vertebrates. (pp. 1261) New York and London. Interscience Publishers. 1961.
  14. Blaxter ML, Page AP, Rudin W, Maizels RM. Nematode surface coats: Actively evading immunity. Parasitology Today. 1992;8(7):243–247. doi: 10.1016/0169-4758(92)90126-m
  15. Soulsby EJL. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. London. Tindall and Cassell Bailliere. 1968.
  16. Permin A, Hansen JW. The Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control of Poultry Parasites: An FAO Handbook. . (pp. 24-29) Rome, Italy. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2003.
  17. Permin A, Bojesen M, Nansen P, Bisgaard M, Frandsen F, Pearman M, et al. Ascaridia galli populations in chickens following single infections with different dose levels. Parasitology Research. 1997;83(6):614–617. doi: 10.1007/s004360050306
  18. Ponnundurai G, Chellappa DJ. Prevalence of helminth parasites of chicken in different systems of management. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 2001;15:73–74.
  19. Ramadan H, Znada NA. Morphology and Life History of Ascaridia galli in the Domestic Fowl that are Raised in Jeddah. Journal of King Abdulaziz University-Science. 1992;4(1):87–99. doi: 10.4197/sci.4-1.9
  20. Permin A, Christensen JP, Bisgaard M. Consequences of concurrent Ascaridia galli and Escherichia coliinfections in chickens. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 2006;47(1):43–54. doi: 10.1186/1751-0147-47-43
  21. Permin A, Bisgaard M, Frandsen F, Pearman M, Nansen P, Kold J. The prevalence ofgastrointestinal helminths in different poultryproduction systems. British Poultry Science. 1999;40:439–443. doi: 10.1080/00071669987179
  22. Ackert JE, Herrick CA. Effects of the Nematode Ascaridia lineata (Schneider) on Growing Chickens. The Journal of Parasitology. 1928;15(1):1–15. doi: 10.2307/3271596
  23. Griffiths HJ. A Handbook of Veterinary Parasitology: Domestic Animals of North America. (pp. 46-47) Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. University of Minnesota Press. 1978.
  24. Ackert JE. The large roundworm of chickens. Veterinary Medicine. 1940;35:106–108.
  25. Permin A, Ranvig H. Genetic resistance to Ascaridia galli infections in chickens. Veterinary Parasitology. 2001;102(1-2):101–111. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4017(01)00525-8
  26. Vassilev I, Ossikovski E, Bozhkov S, Kambourov P, Bankov I, Roupova L, et al. On the pathogenesis of ascaridiosis in fowl. Bulletin of the Central Helminthological Laboratory. 1973;16:43–58.
  27. Census 2011 Lucknow District Population Census 2011, Uttar Pradesh literacy sex ratio and density. Uttar Pradesh literacy sex ratio and density.
  28. Cable RM. An Illustrated Laboratory Manual of Parasitology. (4). (p. 156) Minneapolis; Minnesota, USA. Burges Publishing Co. 1958.
  29. Ptaszyńska AA, Borsuk G, Mułenko W, Demetraki-Paleolog J. Differentiation of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae spores under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Journal of Apicultural Research. 2014;53(5):537–544. doi: 10.3896/ibra.
  30. Ashton FT, Schad GA. Amphids in strongyloides stercoralis and other parasitic nematodes. Parasitology Today. 1996;12(5):187–194. doi: 10.1016/0169-4758(96)10012-0
  31. Hassanain MA, Rahman EHA, Khalil FAM. New Scanning Electron Microscopy Look of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) Adult Worm and its Biological Control. Research Journal of Parasitology. 2009;4(4):94–104. doi: 10.3923/jp.2009.94.104
  32. Fagerholm HP, Nansen P, Roepstorff A, Frandsen F, Eriksen L. Growth and Structural Features of the Adult Stage of Ascaris suum (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) from Experimentally Infected Domestic Pigs. The Journal of Parasitology. 1998;84(2):269. doi: 10.2307/3284481
  33. Lalchhandama K, Roy B, Dutta BK. Anthelmintic activity ofAcacia oxyphyllastem bark againstAscaridia galli. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2009;47(7):578–583. doi: 10.1080/13880200902902463
  34. Lalchhandama K. Pharmacology of Some Traditional Anthelmintic Plants: Biochemical and Microscopic Studies. (pp. 35-38) Saarbrücken, Germany. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. 2010.
  35. Kung CC. Notes on some Avian Species of Ascaridia. Journal of Helminthology. 1949;23(3-4):95–106. doi: 10.1017/s0022149x00032442
  36. Cheng TC, Parasitology. Division of Hardcourt Brace & Company. (pp. 468-482) San Diego, California, USA. Academic Press. 1986.
  37. Lee DL. The structure and composition of the helminth cuticle. Advances in Parasitology. 1966;4:187–254. doi: 10.1016/s0065-308x(08)60450-9
  38. Alvarez LI, Mottier ML, Lanusse CE. Drug transfer into target helminth parasites. Trends in Parasitology. 2007;23(3):97–104. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2007.01.003
  39. Kajerova V, Barus V, Literak I. Nematodes from the genus Ascaridia parasitizing psittaciformbirds: a review and determination key. Veterinarni medicina- Czech. 2004;49:217–223. doi: 10.17221/5698-VETMED
  40. Sharma N, Hunt PW, Hine BC, Ruhnke I. The impacts of Ascaridia galli on performance, health, and immune responses of laying hens: new insights into an old problemPoultry Science. 2019;98(12):6517–6526. doi: 10.3382/ps/pez422
  41. Sharma N, Hunt PW, Hine BC, Sharma NK, Chung A, Ruhnke I, et al. Performance, egg quality and liver lipid reserves of free-range laying hens naturally infected with Ascaridia galli. Poultry Science. 2018;97(6). doi: 10.1017/S0022149X00032442
  42. Sharma N, Hunt PW, Hine BC, Sharma NK, Iqbal Z, Normant C, et al. The effect of an artificial Ascaridia galli infection on egg production, immune response and liver lipid reserves of free-range laying hens. Poultry Science. 2018;97(2):494–502. doi: 10.3382/ps/pex347


© 2020 Jaiswal, Mishra, Bee. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.