• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2023, Volume: 16, Issue: 16, Pages: 1192-1204

Original Article

A Novel Two Tier Missing at Random Type Missing Data Imputation using Enhanced Linear Interpolation Technique on Internet of Medical Things

Received Date:09 January 2023, Accepted Date:30 March 2023, Published Date:21 April 2023


Objectives: Data collection and distribution are essential components required for the victory of Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) system. Generally, missing data is the most recurrent problem that impacts an overall system performance. Methods: Missing data in IoMT systems can be caused by various factors, including faulty connections, external attacks, or sensing errors. Although missing data is ubiquitous in IoT, missing data imputation is hardly ever observed in an IoMT setting. As a result, doing analytics on IoMT data with missing values causes a deterioration in the accuracy and dependability of the data analysis outputs. To achieve excellent performance, missing data must be imputed once it occurs in such systems. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel Two Tier Missing Data Imputation (TT-MDI) technique for missing at random (MAR) type missing data in IoMT using an enhanced linear interpolation technique. Findings: The proposed TT-MDI algorithm has two tiers for imputing MAR missing data and it was tested using the Kaggle Machine Learning Repository’s cStick IoMT dataset. Utilizing the distances between the class centroids with their related data instances, the first tier aims to identify the imputation threshold. The identified threshold is then used by the second tier to impute missing data. According to the experimental findings, the proposed work offers higher accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure for imputed dataset using the TT-MDI technique than missing data included dataset when compared to the original dataset. Novelty: The TT-MDI technique consists of two tiers. The first tier uses Manhattan distances between class centroids and related data instances to discover the imputation threshold. Next, the second tier uses the discovered threshold to impute missing data using the Enhanced Linear Interpolation technique.

Keywords: Internet of Medical Things; Imputation of Missing Data; Threshold Discovery; Manhattan Distance


  1. Al-Turjman F, Nawaz MH, Ulusar UD. Intelligence in the Internet of Medical Things era: A systematic review of current and future trends. Computer Communications. 2020;150:644–660. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comcom.2019.12.030
  2. Manickam P, Mariappan SA, Murugesan SM, Hansda S, Kaushik A, Shinde R, et al. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) Assisted Biomedical Systems for Intelligent Healthcare. Biosensors. 2022;12(8):562. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080562
  3. Yildirim E, Cicioğlu M, Çalhan A. Real-time internet of medical things framework for early detection of Covid-19. Neural Comput & Applic. 2022;34:20365–20378. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00521-022-07582-x
  4. Jia X, Dong X, Chen M, Yu X. Missing data imputation for traffic congestion data based on joint matrix factorization. Knowledge-Based Systems. 2021;225:107114. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2021.107114
  5. Silva-Ramirez EL, Cabrera-Sánchez JFF. Correction to: Co-active neuro-fuzzy inference system model as single imputation approach for non-monotone pattern of missing data. Neural Computing and Applications. 2022;34:2495–2496. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00521-021-06623-1
  6. França CM, Couto RS, Velloso PB. Missing Data Imputation in Internet of Things Gateways. Information. 2021;12(10):425. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/info12100425
  7. Kamkhad N, Jampachaisri K, Siriyasatien P, Kesorn K. Toward semantic data imputation for a dengue dataset. Knowledge-Based Systems. 2020;196:105803. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2020.105803
  8. Hasan MK, Alam MA, Roy S, Dutta A, Jawad MT, Das S. Missing value imputation affects the performance of machine learning: A review and analysis of the literature. Informatics in Medicine Unlocked. 2021;27:100799. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imu.2021.100799
  9. Ji Z, Zhu W. A traffic data imputing method based on multisource recurrent neural network. International Conference on Computer Application and Information Security (ICCAIS 2021). 2022;12260:90–95. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2637835
  10. Nickolas S, Shobha K. Clustering Based Imputation Algorithm Using Unsupervised Neural Network for Enhancing the Quality of Healthcare Data. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing. 2021;12:1771–1781 . Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-020-02250-1


© 2023 Iris Punitha & Sathiaseelan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.