• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2022, Volume: 15, Issue: 48, Pages: 2748-2756

Original Article

A Review on Mechanical Properties and Sorptivity Coefficient of GGBFS and Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete

Received Date:28 June 2022, Accepted Date:28 November 2022, Published Date:27 December 2022


Objectives: To study strength parameters and sorptivity coefficient of GGBFS and fly ash based M20, M40 geo-polymer concrete. Methods: Trials were carried out to compare mechanical properties and the sorptivity coefficient for M20, M40 grade of normal concrete (NC) with M20, M40 grade of geopolymer concrete (GPC), in accordance with the design mix of IS 10262-2019. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were chosen as alkaline solutions with a ratio of 1:2.1 and a molarity of 8M. A 50:50 binder material ratio (fly ash and GGBFS) is used in geo-polymer concrete by replacing the cement. A test for 7, 28, 56, and 90 days were carried out for compression, split tensile and flexure strength, followed by a 28-day test for sorptivity coefficient. Findings: GPC with molarity 8M, with a binder ratio of 0.23 for M40, and 0.29 for M20 GPC cured at ambient temperature, exhibited 14.19% higher strength for M40 grade and 43.81% higher strength for M20 grade in comparison with normal concrete. The water absorption rate of GPC with GGBFS and fly ash was found to be 1.28 times lesser than normal concrete, showing a low sorptivity sign indicating better quality of concrete for practical applications. Novelty: With the least molarity of 8M, GGBFS & fly ash (50:50) ratio-based GPC, with ambient curing alone, performed higher strength parameters in comparison with normal concrete, with less rate of sorptivity coefficient. GPC processed without heat curing has the ability to expand its application in the construction field, saving energy and costs related to heat curing.

Keywords: Strength parameters; Sorptivity coefficient; Geopolymer concrete; Normal concrete; Ambient curing


  1. Mishra J, Das SK, Singh SK, SMM. Development of Geopolymer Concrete for the Protection of Environment: A Greener Alternative to Cement. International Journal of Civil Engineering. 2019;6:40–46. Available from: https://doi.org/10.14445/23488352/IJCE-V6I3P106
  2. Verma M, Dev N, Rahman I, Nigam M, Ahmed M, Mallick J. Geopolymer Concrete: A Material for Sustainable Development in Indian Construction Industries. Crystals. 2022;12(4):514. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12040514
  3. Muniswamappa B&, Mohammad, Fouad, Evans, Rahman MR. Water absorption capacity of concrete cubes with sorptivity coefficient. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET). 2020;07:721–727. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341579491
  4. Kubba Z, Hewayde E, Huseien GF, Sam ARM, Asaad MA. Effect of Sodium Silicate Content on Setting Time and Mechanical Properties of Multi Blend Geopolymer Mortars. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2019;14(7):2262–2267. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331672528
  5. Anbarasan MI, Sanjaiyan SR, Soundarapandiyan SN. Geopolymer concrete under ambient curing. Advances in Geopolymer-Zeolite Composites . 2021. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/76532
  6. Diab M. Enhancing class F fly ash geopolymer concrete performance using lime and steam curing. Journal of Engineering and Applied Science. 2022;69(1):1–19. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/361991095
  7. Geopolymer concrete. (Vol. 7, pp. 365-372) 2022.
  8. Bagde A, Jamgade A, Kalambe D, Ghaiwat A, Ghajghate V. Geopolymer-The concrete of next decade. 2022. Available from: https://www.ijert.org/geopolymer-the-concrete-of-the-next-decade
  9. Rama SD, Shankaraiah R, Sesha SB. The Binder Index – A Parameter That Influences the Strength of Geopolymer Concrete. Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering. 2019;27(1):32–38. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2478/sjce-2019-0005
  10. Rashidian-Dezfouli H. 2019. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post
  11. Kocot A, Ćwirzeń A, Ponikiewski T, Katzer J. Strength Characteristics of Alkali-Activated Slag Mortars with the Addition of PET Flakes. Materials. 14(21):6274. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216274
  12. Xu Z, Huang Z, Liu C, Deng X, Hui D, Deng S. Research progress on mechanical properties of geopolymer recycled aggregate concrete . 2021. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1515/rams-2021-0021
  13. Bayuaji R, Dibiantara DP, Ilmiah R, Husin NA, Darmawan MS, Buyung R, et al. The effect of rice husk ash addition as pozzolan on geopolymer binder using alkali activators. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019;588(1):012035. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/588/1/012035
  14. Gunasekara C, Dirgantara R, Law DW, Setunge S. Effect of Curing Conditions on Microstructure and Pore-Structure of Brown Coal Fly Ash Geopolymers. Applied Sciences. 2019;9(15):3138. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/app9153138
  15. Nikoloutsopoulos N, Sotiropoulou A, Kakali G, Tsivilis S. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete Compared to Conventional Concrete. Buildings. 2021;11(5):178. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11050178
  16. Zulfiati R, Saloma, Idris Y. The Nature of Coconut Fibre Fly Ash-Based Mechanical Geopolymer. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2020;807:12041. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/807/1/012041
  17. Agamy MH, Mohammed, AM, Elnaby SFMA, Elaziz RSA. Effect of Elevated Temperature on Alkali Activated Slag and Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT). 2020;p. 2143–2150. Available from: https://www.ijeat.org/wp-content/uploads/papers/v9i4/D7935049420.pdf
  18. Deepak AL, Lakshmi DTVSV. Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Concrete with Flyash and Metakaolin. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology. 2020;9(1):3863–3868. Available from: https://doi.org/10.35940/ijeat.A1180.109119
  19. Seshu R, Shankaraiah D, R, Srinivas S, B. The binder index - a parameter that influences the strength of geopolymer concrete. Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering. 2019;27(1):32–38. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2478/sjce-2019-0005


© 2022 Pruthviraj & Anadinni. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.