• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Issue: 33, Pages: 3467-3483

Original Article

An investigation into awareness and usage of lead acid batteries in E-rickshaws: A field survey in New Delhi

Received Date:25 July 2020, Accepted Date:25 August 2020, Published Date:15 September 2020


Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify the reasons which contributed to the premature failure of the e-rickshaw battery that puts the e-rickshaw operator (ERO) in financial stress. Methods: A field survey was conducted from 1st October 2019 to 30th October 2019, in the North-West Delhi suburbs to extrapolate the shortcomings. Different EROs, charging station operators (CSOs), and battery vendors were interviewed with an administered questionnaire. The simple random sample consisted of 50 EROs, 20 CSOs, and 40 battery vendors. The quantitative data procured was scrutinized through descriptive as well as inferential analysis. Findings: Constant Current (CC) based chargers were found to be the major reason for the shortened life of the battery. These chargers along with other erroneous practices are preventing both the ERO and the CSO to get the full profitability that they could. It was found during the field survey that the e-rickshaw ecosystem is in a dire need of a fast-charging algorithm. This study investigates the technical concepts which are absent in the e-rickshaw technology like modern fast charging techniques such as Constant Current-Constant Voltage (CC-CV), Pulse-Current, Superimposed Pulse Frequency, Intermittent- Current Charing, and Interrupted Charge-Control Techniques (ICCT) and the Hybrid Energy Systems.Novelty/Benefit: The study succinctly points to the technological dots that remain unconnected in the e-rickshaw and shows how the CC-CV based fast charging algorithm and the hybrid energy systems could fill those technological gaps, increase the efficiency and profitability of the e-rickshaw ecosystem.

Keywords: E-rickshaw battery life; battery chargers; charging techniques; pulse current; superimposed pulse frequency; interrupted charge-control


  1. Juyal S, Saxena A, Sharma S, Srivastava A, Jain R, Ritolia R, et al. NITI Aayog Transforming India’s Mobility: A perspective. 2018. Available from: https://niti.gov.in/writereaddata/files/document_publication/BCG.pdf
  2. Harding S, Rojesh S. Battery Rickshaws in New Delhi and the Regulation Conundrum. Economic and political weekly. 2014;35:43–47. Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24480494
  3. Jash T. Renewable energy and environment. Geographical Review of India. 2007;69(1):20–24.
  4. Megateli RM, Idir G, Arab AH. Study of the variation of the specific gravity of the electrolyte during charge/discharge cycling of a lead acid battery. 3rd International Conference on Control, Engineering & Information Technology (CEIT). 2015. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1109/CEIT.2015.7232980
  5. Tenno A, Tenno R, Suntio T. Evaluation of VRLA battery under overcharging: model for battery testing. Journal of Power Sources. 2002;111(1):65–82. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-7753(02)00276-8
  6. Ruetschi P. Aging mechanisms and service life of lead–acid batteries. Journal of Power Sources. 2004;127(1-2):33–44. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2003.09.052
  7. Dhameja S. Electric Vehicle Battery Systems (1). (pp. 95-112) Boston, USA.. Newnes. 2001.
  8. Rand AJD, Moseley PT, Garche J, Park CD. Valve-regulated Lead–Acid Batteries (1). (pp. 241-287) Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Elsevier Science. 2004.
  9. Qian P, Guo M. Design of Pulse Charger for Lead-Acid Battery. In: Hu W., ed. Electronics and Signal Processing, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. (Vol. 97, pp. 897-901) Springer. 2011.
  10. Lam LT, Ozgun H, Cranswick LMD, Rand DAJ. Pulsed-current formation of tetrabasic lead sulfate in cured lead/acid battery plates. Journal of Power Sources. 1993;42(1-2):55–70. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-7753(93)80137-e
  11. Lam LT, Ozgun H, Lim OV, Hamilton JA, Vu LH, Vella DG, et al. Pulsed-current charging of lead/acid batteries — a possible means for overcoming premature capacity loss? Journal of Power Sources. 1995;53(2):215–228. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-7753(94)01988-8
  12. Rand DAJ, Boden DP, Lakshmi CS, Nelson RF, Prengaman RD. Manufacturing and operational issues with lead-acid batteries. Journal of Power Sources. 2002;107(2):280–300. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-7753(01)01083-7
  13. Bhatt M, Hurley WG, Wolfle WH. A New Approach to Intermittent Charging of Valve-Regulated Lead–Acid Batteries in Standby Applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. 2005;52(5):1337–1342. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tie.2005.855665
  14. Rossinot E, Lefrou C, Dalard F, Cun JP. Batteries in standby applications: comparison of alternate mode versus floating. Journal of Power Sources. 2001;101(1):27–34. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-7753(01)00483-9
  15. Barcellona S, Piegari L, Villa A. Passive hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicles at very low temperatures. Journal of Energy Storage. 2019;25. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2019.100833


© 2020 Tirpude et al.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee).


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.