Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Year: 2018, Volume: 11, Issue: 18, Pages: 1-16
Redmond Ramin Shamshiri* , Bala Ibrahim, Desa Ahmad, Hasfalina Che Man and Aimrun Wayayok
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
*Author for correspondence
Redmond Ramin Shamshiri,
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; [email protected]
Objectives: To present a general overview of rice agronomic practices and transplanting operations by considering the interactions of soil, plant, and machine relationship in line with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) cultivation practice. Methods: Some of the problems challenging Malaysian rice growers, as well as yield increase and total rice production in the last four decades, were first addressed and discussed. The trend in the world rice production between 1961 and 2014 was used to predict the production in 2020 and to show that Southeast Asian countries are expected to increase their production by 27.2%. Findings: A consistently increasing pattern from 3.1 tons/ha during 1981 to 4.1 tons/ha in 2014 was observed in the rice yield of Malaysia due to the advances in technology and improved farming operations coupled with integrated management and control of resources. Various literatures were reviewed and their findings of the best transplanting practices were summarized to discuss how SRI contributes to the production of higher rice yield with improved transplanting practices through a more effective root system. Our review shows that wider spacing, availability of solar radiation, medium temperature, soil aeration, and nutrient supply promote shorter Phyllochrons which increase the number of tillers in rice. In this regard, modification and development of a transplanter that complies with SRI specification require determination of optimum transplanting spacing, seed rate, and planting pattern to significantly improve yield. Improvement: It was concluded that for maximum yield, the SRI method in Malaysia should emphasize on planting of one seedling per hill with space of 0.25 m for optimum water consumption, nutrient and pest management.
Keywords: Nursery Management, Paddy, Seedling, System of Rice Intensification, Transplanting
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