• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Issue: 27, Pages: 2733-2746

Original Article

Implementation of an effective hybrid model for islanded microgrid energy management

Received Date:22 June 2020, Accepted Date:20 July 2020, Published Date:31 July 2020


Objective: To propose an effective hybrid model for predictive control (EHMPC) to efficiently manage demand and supply of energy for a microgrid operating in islanded mode operation. Due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources and variation in load in the microgrid, maintaining the system stability and reliability along with the economy is a critical issue to be addressed. In the islanded mode of operation, the voltage and frequency have to be monitored in addition to managing energy storage units. The different uncertainties occurring at various stages of microgrid should be taken into account to operate the microgrid with reliability under critical condition. Methods: This paper proposes an effective algorithm to efficiently control the operation of microgrid and to operate it with optimal efficiency and reliability. In this work, we have proposed a three-stage control of the microgrid where the first stage consists of the arbitrarily distributed generation (ADG) stage, the second stage has energy storage unit (ESU), and the final stage has the energy management scheme (EMS). Finding: A case study has been carried out and the proposed method is found to be better in performance, economical and robust in comparison with the conventional two-stage model predictive control (MPC) optimization approach. Further important parameters have been analyzed. Novelty: To overcome the limitations of conventional MPC algorithm, we propose a three-stage EHMPC algorithm it consists of three stages, ADG had the first stage of the algorithm the main features of this stage. To optimize the placement, sizing, power factor, minimize network losses and maximize DG integration. The second stage has ESU, the main features of this stage to improve control strategy for optimal power management of microgrid and the final stage has the EMS, to improve tested analysis for a real-time islanded microgrid under various load conditions.

Keywords: Energy management; microgrid; renewable Energy; islanded mode; predictive control


  1. Admasie S, Bukhari SBA, Haider R, Gush T, Kim CH. A passive islanding detection scheme using variational mode decomposition-based mode singular entropy for integrated microgrids. Electric Power Systems Research. 2019;177:105983. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2019.105983
  2. Chakravorti T, Priyadarshini L, Dash PK, Sahu BN. Islanding and non-islanding disturbance detection in microgrid using optimized modes decomposition based robust random vector functional link network. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence. 2019;85(4):122–136. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engappai.2019.06.004
  3. Ganesh C, Babu CHL, Kumar KP. Adaptive Control and Power Management in a Microgrid by using Distribution Grids. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015;8(30):1–8. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i30/78769
  4. Gayathri GS, Annapeachi V, , . A Generalized Framework for a Cost Optimization Scheme in a MicroGrid. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2019;12(24):1–6. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2019/v12i24/143935
  5. Padmanabhan B. Nine-level Inverter based Solar Power Generation for Micro Grid Application. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;10(36):1–5.
  6. Kuldip Singh1 *, Mishra S. A Review on Power Management and Power Quality for Islanded PV Microgrid in Smart Village. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;10(17):1–4.
  7. Prakash AC, Reddy DS. Distributed Generation Operation in Micro-Grid by using Smart Distribution Systems. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016;9(35):1–5. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i35/97930
  8. Choudhary NK, Mohanty SR, Singh RK. Active and Reactive Power Management in Microgrid: Analysis in Grid Connected and Islanded Mode of Operation. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016;9(21):1–8. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i21/79587
  9. Thakur G, Kamal K, Sharma. Power Management in Hybrid Microgrid System. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;10(16):1–5.
  10. Nabatirad MR, Eghbalpour H, Rahnamafard Y, Pirayesh A. Load Sharing by Decentralized Control in an Islanded Inverter-based Microgrid using Frequency Tracking. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015;8(27):1–11. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i27/59406
  11. Pandey K, Banerjee P, Mathur D. Study and Modelling of Green Energy based Micro-Grid for Rural Area. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016;9(21):1–6. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i21/91568
  12. Bindhu VS, DM. Mary Synthia Regis Prabha, A Survey on Control and Communication of Smart Micro Grid. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015;8(25):1–6.
  13. Rajarajeswari R, Vijayakumar K, Swaroop PR, Ramanathan S. Simulation of Controllers for AC Microgrid. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016;9(42):1–5. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i42/101854
  14. Kodali MM, Srikanth KS. Power Management Strategy for Hybrid Microgrid System under Islanded Condition using Adaptive Droop Control. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016;9(28):1–7. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i28/91580
  15. Raju L, Milton RS, Morais AA. Autonomous Energy Management of a Micro-Grid using Multi Agent System. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016;9(13):1–8. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i13/89294
  16. Vivas FJ, Segura F, Andújar JM, Caparrós JJ. A suitable state-space model for renewable source-based microgrids with hydrogen as backup for the design of energy management systems. Energy Conversion and Management. 2020;219:113053. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2020.113053
  17. Sinha S, Bajpai P. Power management of hybrid energy storage system in a standalone DC microgrid. Journal of Energy Storage. 2020;30:101523. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2020.101523
  18. Ahmadi SE, Rezaei N. A new isolated renewable based multi microgrid optimal energy management system considering uncertainty and demand response. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. 2020;118:105760. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2019.105760
  19. Parol M, Wójtowicz T, Księżyk K, Wenge C, Balischewski S, Arendarski B. Optimum management of power and energy in low voltage microgrids using evolutionary algorithms and energy storage. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. 2020;119:1–13. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2020.105886
  20. Samadi E, Badri A, Ebrahimpour R. Decentralized multi-agent based energy management of microgrid using reinforcement learning. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. 2020;122:106211. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2020.106211
  21. APN, Kishore DR. Integration of PV based DG Source in AC microgrid with interconnection to Grid. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015;8(32):1–5. Available from: https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i32/72203
  22. Khamis A, Ab MR. Modelling and Analysis Fuel Cell with Battery Storage Microgrid System Based on Green Energy. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2018;11(30):1–15. Available from: https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2018/v11i30/109336
  23. Singh K, Mishra S. A Review on Power Management and Power Quality for Islanded PV Microgrid in Smart Village. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;10(17):1–4. Available from: https://doiorg10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i17/103033
  24. Rasheed A, Rao GK. Improvement of Power Quality for Microgrid using Fuzzy based UPQC Controller. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015;8(23):1–5. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i23/70751
  25. Sanij MD, Dehghani-Ashkezari M, Hashemi-Dezaki H. Optimum Reserve Estimation in Micro-Grids containing Renewable Distributed Generation Resources. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015;8(28):1–9. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i28/82804
  26. Samia ,, Kant SK, Inderpreet K, Balwinder S. Power System Stability for the Islanding Operation of Micro Grids. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016;9(38):1–5. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i38/101474


© 2020 Mallikarjunaswamy, Sharmila, Maheshkumar, Komala, Mahendra. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.