• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2022, Volume: 15, Issue: 20, Pages: 989-1000

Original Article

Phenotypic Characterization of Local Date Palm Cultivars at Jericho in Palestinian Jordan Valley District

Received Date:21 December 2021, Accepted Date:02 February 2022, Published Date:06 June 2022


Background: This study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of Date Palm cultivars grown in Jericho region in Palestine, in order to identify and preserve the most economically and environmentally feasible cultivars. Methods: Thirty-five samples were collected from three historical Palm stations in Jericho during the harvest season in September 2018 and repeated in September 2019. Twenty-two morphological markers were analyzed separately on vegetative parts using multivariate analysis. Findings: The results showed high morphological variability among local Date Palm cultivars. Data analysis using principal component analysis revealed that morphological characteristics of fruits and leaves could be used for identification and description of Date Palm cultivars. The results showed a wide variation for different degrees of similarity when local cultivars were separated from introduced one. Significant variation was found among the 35 cultivars for most studied traits, and showed the superiority of the fruiting characteristics in NARC1, NARC4, NARC5, DH4 and DH5 cultivars. These local varieties have a good fruit width range from 19.2 to 20.3 mm; fruit length 47.01 mm; fruit size more than 8 cm3; and fruit weight and flesh weight, 9.8g and 8.87g. Novelty: Up to our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind in Palestine where the local Date Palm cultivars in Jericho area were assisted by studying the morphological characteristics of fruits and leaves. The data obtained could help to create a phenotypic database and use the most discriminants descriptors found in this study for a large-scale phenotyping.

Keywords: Date Palm; Cultivar; Phenotypic diversity; Morphological variability; Jericho


  1. Rabou A, Fattah A, Radwan E. The current status of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and its uses in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity. 2017;18(3):1047–1061. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d180324
  2. Hadrami IE, Hadrami AE. Breeding Date Palm. Breeding Plantation Tree Crops: Tropical Species. 2009;p. 191–216. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-71201-7_6
  3. Abu-Qaoud H. Date Palm Status and Perspective in Palestine. In: AKJ, JS, JD., eds. (eds) Date Palm Genetic Resources and Utilization. Dordrecht. Springer. 2015.
  4. Sonneveld BGJS, Marei A, Merbis MD, Alfarra A. The future of date palm cultivation in the Lower Jordan Valley of the West Bank. Applied Water Science. 2018;8(4). Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13201-018-0746-2
  5. Sallon S, Cherif E, Chabrillange N, Solowey E, Gros-Balthazard M, Ivorra S, et al. Origins and insights into the historic Judean date palm based on genetic analysis of germinated ancient seeds and morphometric studies. Science Advances. 2020;6(6). Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax0384
  6. OMV, MA, OZE, MBF, Lemine M, ODTK, et al. Use of multivariate analysis to assess phenotypic diversity of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae. 2011;127(3):367–371. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2010.11.011
  7. Simozrang A, Chala A, Djerouni A, Bentchikou ME. Phenotypic diversity of date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) from Algeria, Gayana. Botánica. 2016;73(1):42–53. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0717-66432016000100006
  8. Bedjaoui H, Benbouza H. Assessment of phenotypic diversity of local Algerian date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 2020;19(1):65–75. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2018.06.002
  9. Kadri K, Abdelhafidh M, Aounallah K. Analysis of the Morphological Diversity of Inflorescence of Six Tunisian Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Pollinators. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2021;3(4):56–62. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.4.346
  10. Hamza H, Elbekkay M, Abederrahim MAB, Ali AF. Molecular and morphological analyses of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) subpopulations in southern Tunisia. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 2011;9(2):484. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/20110902-271-10
  11. Al-Abdoulhadi IA. Assessing fruit characteristics to standardize quality norms in date cultivars of Saudi Arabia. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2011;4(10):1262–1266. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2011/v4i10.5
  12. Said A, Kaoutrher D, Ahmed B, Mohammed T, &brahim T. Dates Quality Assessment of the Main Date Palm Cultivars Grown in Algeria. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 2014;4(3):487–499. Available from: https://doi.org/10.9734/ARRB/2014/5009
  13. Sakr MM, Abu-Zeid IM, Hassan AE, Baz AG, Hassan WM. Identification of some date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars by fruit characters. Indian Journal of Science Technology. 2010;3(3):338–342. doi: 10.17485/ijst/2010/v3i3/29712
  14. Saraçli S, Doğan N, Doğan İ. Comparison of hierarchical cluster analysis methods by cophenetic correlation. Journal of Inequalities and Applications. 2013;2013(1):1–8. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1029-242x-2013-203
  15. Elsafy M, Garkava-Gustavsson L, Mujaju C. Phenotypic Diversity of Date Palm Cultivars (<i>Phoenix dactylifera</i> L.) from Sudan Estimated by Vegetative and Fruit Characteristics. International Journal of Biodiversity. 2015;2015:1–7. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/610391
  16. Nadeem M, Salim-Ur-Rehman S, Anjum FM, Bhatti IA. Quality evaluation of some Pakistani date varieties. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Science. 2011;48(4):305–313. Available from: https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=PK2012000587


© 2022 Khalilia et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.