• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2024, Volume: 17, Issue: 17, Pages: 1735-1744

Original Article

Solubility Enhancement of Efinaconazole using Neem Gum and Evaluation of Antifungal Activity

Received Date:07 February 2024, Accepted Date:02 April 2024, Published Date:19 April 2024


Objectives: Efinaconazole is an anti-fungal drug of BCS class II used for treating Onchomycosis. Neem gum known for its antifungal properties was purified and used as hydrophilic carrier. Solid dispersions by physical mixture and solvent evaporation method were prepared using purified Neem gum. Methods: The prepared solid dispersions in ratios 1:1, 1:3 and 1:6 were characterized for percentage yield, assay, solubility, and dissolution studies. The optimized solid dispersion SD6 was formulated as gel for ease of application. Gels were characterized for physico-chemical properties and in-vitro diffusion studies. The optimized gel was evaluated for anti-fungal activity. Findings: FTIR, DSC and XRD studies of optimized SD6 showed compatibility and amorphous nature respectively. G2 gel formulation containing SD6 solid dispersion showed 80.4±0.14% when compared to G1 56.76±0.34% release in 8hrs. Both the gels followed zero order and Higuchi release. Antifungal studies indicated more efficiency of G2 gel by zone of inhibition when compared with G1 containing only drug. G2 gel was found to be stable for one month. Novelty : In the present research work purified neem gum, which is natural carrier and neem known for its antifungal activity was used to enhance the solubility of drug and evaluate the antifungal activity of drug with purified neem gum. Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded, purified Neem gum can be used as hydrophilic carrier and as solubility of Efinaconazole was enhanced its antifungal activity was also increased.

Keywords: Onchomycosis, Efinaconazole, Neem gum, Solid dispersions, Antifungal


  1. Prasanthi D, Prakash C, Aishwarya KL. Solid dispersions of fenofibrate by dropping method. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2019;10(11):4995–5001. Available from: https://ijpsr.com/bft-article/solid-dispersions-of-fenofibrate-by-dropping-method/
  2. Sopyan I, Adiningsih N, Megantara S, Marvita SS. Solubility Enhancement of Carvedilol by Solid Dispersion Technique Using Sodium Alginate, Guar Gum, Xanthan Gum, and Locust Bean Gum as Polymers. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry. 2023;23(2):349–357. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.22146/ijc.77698
  3. Nagpal M, Aggarwal G, Sharma P, Mahan P, Thakur GS. Neem Gum Based Solid Dispersion in Development of Aceclofenac Tablet with Enhanced Bioavailability. Drug Delivery Letters. 2017;7(2):115–124. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2210303107666170418125958
  4. Lee SK, Ha ES, Jeong JS, Kim S, Park H, Kim JS, et al. Determination and correlation of solubility of efinaconazole in fifteen mono solvents and three binary mixed solvents at various temperatures. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2022;349(1):118148. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2021.118148
  5. Gupta AK, Talukder M. Efinaconazole in Onychomycosis. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology. 2022;23(2):207–218. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40257-021-00660-1
  6. Bhatt V, Pillai R. Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%: Formulation Development Program of a New Topical Treatment of Toenail Onychomycosis. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;104(7):2177–2182. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.24459
  7. Devi A, Chaurasia H, Singh R. Development of nano formuation and its optimization evaluation of efinaconazole loaded transfersomal gel for treatment of nail infection. Journal of Jilin University (Engineering and Technology Edition). 2021;40(11):23–43. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/9P4S6
  8. Kaur N, Bains A, Kaushik R, Dhull SB, Melinda F, Chawla P. A Review on Antifungal Efficiency of Plant Extracts Entrenched Polysaccharide-Based Nanohydrogels. Nutrients. 2021;13(6):1–26. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13062055
  9. Chennuri A, Prasanthi D. Solubility Enhancement of Aripiprazole by Solid-Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research. 2018;10(4):233–245. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.25004/ijpsdr.2018.100405
  10. Kalaskar MG, Mutha RE, Tatiya AU, Firke SD, Surana SJ, Dhoka KA, et al. Purification and modification of neem gum for enhancement of its suspending property. Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021;7(1):1–8. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43094-021-00265-9
  11. Rodde MS, Divase GT, Devkar TB, Tekade AR. Solubility and Bioavailability Enhancement of Poorly Aqueous Soluble Atorvastatin:<i>In Vitro</i>,<i>Ex Vivo</i>, and<i>In Vivo</i>Studies. BioMed Research International. 2014;2014:1–10. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/463895
  12. Kumari JK, Kumar BH, Prasanthi D. Natural Gums and Mucilage as Gelling agents in Topical Gel Formulation. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022;15(10):4681–4686. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.52711/0974-360x.2022.00785
  13. Mali KK, Dhawale SC, Dias RJ. Extraction, Characterization and Functionalization of Tamarind Gum. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019;12(4):1745–1752. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360x.2019.00292.0
  14. Sapkal SB, Adhao VS, Thenge RR, Darakhe RA, Shinde SA, Shrikhande VN. Formulation and Characterization of Solid Dispersions of Etoricoxib Using Natural Polymers. Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;17(1):7–19. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjps.galenos.2018.04880
  15. Patel M, Tekade A, Gattani S, Surana S. Solubility Enhancement of Lovastatin by Modified Locust Bean Gum Using Solid Dispersion Techniques. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008;9(4):1262–1269. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-008-9171-4
  16. Duc HN. Development and evaluation of neem gel formulation using gum karaya as gelling agent. Research journal of pharmacy and Technology. 2020;13(4):1859–1864. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00335.2
  17. Zair MA, Prasanthi D, Chennuri A, Hanthal ZR, Lakshmi PK. Effect of Transcutol and Stearylamine on Ibuprofen Hydrophilic Gel for Transdermal Delivery. International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology. 2018;8(1):6–14. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.25258/ijddt.v8i01.11901
  18. Bayan MF, Chandrasekaran B, Alyami MH. Development and Characterization of Econazole Topical Gel. Gels. 2023;9(12):1–12. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/gels9120929
  19. Garg AK, Maddiboyina B, Alqarni MHS, Alam A, Aldawsari HM, Rawat P, et al. Solubility enhancement, formulation development and antifungal activity of luliconazole niosomal gel-based system. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition. 2021;32(8):1009–1023. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2021.1892471
  20. Ghannoum MA, Hajjeh RA, Scher R, Konnikov N, Gupta AK, Summerbell R, et al. A large-scale North American study of fungal isolates from nails: The frequency of onychomycosis, fungal distribution, and antifungal susceptibility patterns. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2000;43(4):641–648. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mjd.2000.107754


© 2024 Vaishnavi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.