• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2024, Volume: 17, Issue: 14, Pages: 1485-1496

Original Article

Surface modification of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy with Stelcar Alloy Powder Using Laser Cladding Technique

Received Date:28 February 2024, Accepted Date:15 March 2024, Published Date:03 April 2024


Objective: To examine the tribological and mechanical characteristics of the AZ61 alloy reinforced with Stelcar alloy powder by surface modification through laser cladding. Methods: Surface modification was done by using a laser cladding machine, where the input parameters including Scanning Speed (SS), Laser Power (LP) and Powder Feed Rate (PFR) were adjusted. Experimental design followed a L9 Taguchi approach, and optimization of input parameters for the surface modified AZ61 alloy reinforced with Stelcar alloy particles was achieved using Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). Output responses, namely wear volume and micro hardness were measured to assess the effectiveness of the optimization process. Findings: From the results obtained through the experiments, powder feed rate contributes to 82.81% of the variability in wear volume, whereas the laser power mostly impacts micro hardness; influencing it by 89.46% confirmed with ANOVA. In order to determine the optimal processing parameters among various objectives, this research applies the grey relational method. The results showed that the wear volume and micro hardness of the composite were significantly affected by the Stelcar reinforcement. Employing Grey relational analysis combined with several optimization objectives into a transparent method, resulting in a clad material with the lower wear volume and higher micro hardness. The optimized processing parameters predicted grey relational grades with an error rate of 1.39% and a significant contribution of 63.60% from laser power. This study confirmed that multi-objective optimization could enhance laser-cladded surface mechanical characteristics and laid out the theoretical foundation for this approach. Novelty: This study introduces an innovative approach to surface modification by employing the laser cladding technique to reinforce Stelcar alloy particles, thereby creating a dense coating on the substrate.

Keywords: Laser Cladding, AZ61 magnesium alloy, Stelcar alloy, Coating, Optimization


  1. Liu B, Yang J, Zhang X, Yang Q, Zhang J, Li X. Development and application of magnesium alloy parts for automotive OEMs: A review. Journal of Magnesium and Alloys. 2023;11(1):15–47. doi: 10.1016/j.jma.2022.12.015
  2. Prasad SVS, Prasad SB, Verma K, Mishra RK, Kumar V, Singh S. The role and significance of Magnesium in modern day research-A review. Journal of Magnesium and Alloys. 2022;10(1):1–61. doi: 10.1016/j.jma.2021.05.012
  3. Yang D., ed. Practical Applications of Laser Ablation. (pp. 1-172) IntechOpen. 2021. 10.5772/intechopen.92496
  4. Zhu L, Xue P, Lan Q, Meng G, Ren Y, Yang Z, et al. Recent research and development status of laser cladding: A review. Optics & Laser Technology. 2021;138:106915. doi: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2021.106915
  5. Lu Pz, Jia L, Zhang C, Heng X, Xi Xc, Duan Mf, et al. Optimization on laser cladding parameters for preparing Ni60 coating along with its friction and wear properties. Materials Today Communications. 2023;37:107162. doi: 10.1016/j.mtcomm.2023.107162
  6. Xi W, Song B, Chen L, Liang Y, Yu T, Wang J, et al. Multi-track, multi-layer cladding layers of YCF102: An analytical and predictive investigation of geometric characteristics. Optics & Laser Technology. 2023;167:109696. doi: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2023.109696
  7. Ma M, Xiong W, Lian Y, Han D, Zhao C, Zhang J. Modeling and optimization for laser cladding via multi-objective quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm. Surface and Coatings Technology. 2020;381:125129. doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2019.125129
  8. Bourahima F, Helbert AL, Ji V, Rege M, Courteaux A, Brisset F, et al. Optimization of Microstructural Evolution during Laser Cladding of Ni Based Powder on GCI Glass Molds. Key Engineering Materials. 2019;813:185–190. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.813.185
  9. Bartkowski D, Bartkowska A, Olszewska J, Przestacki D, Ulbrich D. Stellite-6/(WC+TiC) Composite Coatings Produced by Laser Alloying on S355 Steel. Materials. 2023;16(14):1–19. doi: 10.3390/ma16145000
  10. Sathish T, Mohanavel V, Ansari K, Saravanan R, Karthick A, Afzal A, et al. Synthesis and Characterization of Mechanical Properties and Wire Cut EDM Process Parameters Analysis in AZ61 Magnesium Alloy + B4C + SiC. Materials. 2021;14(13):1–21. doi: 10.3390/ma14133689
  11. Zhu ZY, Ouyang C, Chen JH, Qiao YX. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Stellite 6 alloy powders incorporated with Ti/B4C using plasma-arc-surfacing processes. Materiali in tehnologije / Materials and technology. 2019;53(1):3–8. doi: 10.17222/mit.2018.044
  12. Wang K, Liu W, Hong Y, Sohan H, Tong Y, Hu Y, et al. An Overview of Technological Parameter Optimization in the Case of Laser Cladding. Coatings. 2023;13(3):1–26. doi: 10.3390/coatings13030496
  13. Devaraj LD, Srinivasan V. Evaluation of Micro Hardness and Wear Characteristics of Gyroid Designed Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated Through DMLS Technique. Indian Journal Of Science And Technology. 2023;16(47):4469–4480. doi: 10.17485/IJST/v16i47.2637
  14. Mohankumar A, Duraisamy T, Packkirisamy V, Sampathkumar D. Response Surface Methodology and Mayfly Optimization for Predicting the Properties of Cold-Sprayed AA2024/Al2O3 Coatings on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 2023;p. 1–19. doi: 10.1007/s11665-023-08898-y
  15. Ashokkumar M, Thirumalaikumarasamy D, Sonar T, PV, SD. Optimization of cold spray coating parameters using RSM for reducing the porosity level of AA2024/Al2O3 coating on AZ31B magnesium alloy. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM). 2023;p. 1–15. doi: 10.1007/s12008-023-01597-x
  16. Lian G, Xiao S, Zhang Y, Jiang J, Zhan Y. Multi-objective optimization of coating properties and cladding efficiency in 316L/WC composite laser cladding based on grey relational analysis. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 2021;112(5-6):1449–1459. doi: 10.1007/s00170-020-06486-1
  17. Mugilan T, Sridhar N, Sathishkumar GB. Multi response hybrid optimization of sustainable high-speed end milling on 89.7Ti-6Al-4V. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2022;65(Part B):3170–3176. doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2022.05.362
  18. Sathishkumar GB, Asaithambi B, Srinivasan V. Optimizing Laser Cladding Parameters on AZ61 Magnesium Alloy with Inconel 625 Powder through Grey Relation Analysis. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2024;17(11):1059–1069. doi: 10.17485/IJST/v17i11.2686


© 2024 Sathishkumar et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.