• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2015, Volume: 8, Issue: Supplementary 9, Pages: 1-6

Original Article

Timing and Carrier Synchronization by Offset Estimation for Cooperative Relay Networks


Cooperative communication combats the effects offadingwithoutthe need for multiple antennas.The cooperative networks use multiple distributed nodes that virtually behave like multiple antennas each having their own local oscillators. But the oscillators cause multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets (CFO), unknown channel gains and Multiple Timing Offsets (MTO). For a good performance of the system perfect synchronization is needed which is achieved by estimation and compensation of multiple offsets. Also, the coverage and capacity can be improved by employing intermediate nodes called relays within cooperative networks. These cooperative relay networks can perform in a better manner even when considering MCFOs, MTOs and unknown channel gains by having more computationally efficient decoders that can use Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation subject to the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) on the variance of any impartial estimate. The simulation results show that frequency offset still exist after Amplify and Forward (AF) relaying. The performance of a conventional cooperative network seems to have improved with respect to Bit Error Rate of the system when an AF relay is hosted. The estimate of the frequency offset is chosen such that it gives the signal, a high probability of occurrence using ML estimator. In ML estimate, since the bias and variance is difficult to compute, a lower bound called the CRLB on the variance of any unbiased estimate is derived which is satisfied by the ML estimator.
Keywords: AF, Cooperative Communication, CFO, ML Estimation and Compensation, OFDM


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