• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2021, Volume: 14, Issue: 46, Pages: 3396-3406

Original Article

Determination of the Efficiency of Port Performance and Productivity Based on Data Envelopment Analysis in the West Africa Sub-region

Received Date:17 October 2021, Accepted Date:12 December 2021, Published Date:24 December 2021


Background: Ports are one of the assets of every country and one way to achieve efficiency is by maximizing productivity amid limited resources. Despite the increase in the number of studies on the efficiency of container terminals, their focus has been channeled on advanced markets. Researchers conduct limited studies on container terminals in developing countries such as those of the West African region, which are located in a critical geographic place in the international maritime route between these areas and the World. Information on their potential for development relative to other terminals worldwide is therefore not readily available hence, this study seeks to provide answers to critical productivity indicators of ports in the West Africa sub-region. Methods : We evaluate the technical efficiency of the 5 major container terminals in the West African region. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach is used to measure technical efficiency and slack variable analysis which identifies potential areas of improvement for inefficient terminals. Moreover, DEA can handle multiple inputs and outputs, which makes it applicable to the port analysis. Findings: The results indicate that the Tema port is the most efficient port among the sample, with an average efficiency of 100% in the nine years and the Port of Cotonou is the least efficient with an average efficiency of 44% and exhibits substantial waste in production throughout the nine-year analysis. Novelty: This is the first time that the current data from 2010- 2018 has been used to determine port efficiency and the efficiency scores are necessary indicators for terminal managers to adopt and sustain all the necessary alignments to structures and strategies.

Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; productivity improvement; efficiency; port management; West Africa


  1. Kutin N, Nguyen TT, Vallée T. Relative Efficiencies of ASEAN Container Ports based on Data Envelopment Analysis. The Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics. 2017;33(2):67–77. doi: 10.1016/j.ajsl.2017.06.004
  2. de Bruijn H. Performance measurement in the public sector: strategies to cope with the risks of performance measurement. International Journal of Public Sector Management. 2002;15(7):578–594. doi: 10.1108/09513550210448607
  3. Notteboom T, Pallis A, Rodrigue J. Port economics, management and policy. (Vol. 624, pp. 2022) New York. .
  4. Tongzon JL, Ganesalingam S. An Evaluation of ASEAN Port Performance and Efficiency. Asian Economic Journal. 1994;8(3):317–330. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8381.1994.tb00020.x
  5. Steenken D, Voß S, Stahlbock R. Container terminal operation and operations research — a classification and literature review. Container Terminals and Automated Transport Systems. 26:3–49. doi: 10.1007/3-540-26686-0_1
  6. Hlali A. Efficiency Analysis with Different Models: The Case of Container Ports. Journal of Marine Science: Research & Development. 2018;08(02):8. doi: 10.4172/2155-9910.1000250
  7. Kammoun R, Abdenadher C. The Technical Efficiency of Tunisian Ports: Comparing Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis Scores. Journal of Marine Science: Research & Development. 2018;08(06):8. doi: 10.4172/2155-9910.1000261
  8. Ds K, Dwarakish G;IJH, Eng. Measuring port performance and productivity. ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 2018;26:1–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/09715010.2018.1473812
  9. Chang YTT. Environmental efficiency of ports: a Data Envelopment Analysis approach. Maritime Policy & Management. 2013;40(5):467–478. doi: 10.1080/03088839.2013.797119
  10. Golany B, Storbeck JE. A Data Envelopment Analysis of the Operational Efficiency of Bank Branches. Interfaces. 1999;29(3):14–26. doi: 10.1287/inte.29.3.14
  11. Valdmanis V. Sensitivity analysis for DEA models. Journal of Public Economics. 1992;48(2):185–205. doi: 10.1016/0047-2727(92)90026-c
  12. Salinas-Jiménez J, Smith P. Data envelopment analysis applied to quality in primary health care. Annals of Operations Research. 1996;67(1):141–161. doi: 10.1007/bf02187027
  13. Visbal-Cadavid D, Martínez-Gómez M, Guijarro F. Assessing the Efficiency of Public Universities through DEA. A Case Study. Sustainability. 2017;9(8):1416. doi: 10.3390/su9081416
  14. Mescher M, Müller A. Data Envelopment Analysis. Controlling. 2002;14(4-5):299–300. doi: 10.15358/0935-0381-2002-4-5-299
  15. Bassan S. Evaluating seaport operation and capacity analysis—preliminary methodology. Maritime Policy & Management. 2007;34(1):3–19. doi: 10.1080/03088830601102725
  16. Tongzon J. Efficiency measurement of selected Australian and other international ports using data envelopment analysis. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 2001;35(2):107–122. doi: 10.1016/s0965-8564(99)00049-x
  17. Zaoudi A. Measurement and benchmark of economic performance in the Mediterranean port sector. The 4th International Conference on Computers in Management and Business. 2021;p. 13–19. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1145/3450588.3450592
  18. Van Dyck GK. Assessment of Port Efficiency in West Africa Using Data Envelopment Analysis. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management. 2015;05(04):208–218. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2015.54023
  19. Herrera S, Pang G. Eficiency of Infrastructure: The Case of Container Ports. Economia [Internet]. 2008;9(1):165–194.
  20. Chin ATH, Low JMW. Port performance in Asia: Does production efficiency imply environmental efficiency? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2010;15(8):483–488. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2010.06.003
  21. Cullinane K, Song DW, Ji P, Wang TF. An Application of DEA Windows Analysis to Container Port Production Efficiency. Review of Network Economics. 2004;3(2):184–206. doi: 10.2202/1446-9022.1050
  22. Wang TF, Cullinane K. The Efficiency of European Container Terminals and Implications for Supply Chain Management. Maritime Economics & Logistics. 2006;8(1):82–99. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.mel.9100151
  23. Wanke PF, Barbastefano RG, Hijjar MF. Determinants of Efficiency at Major Brazilian Port Terminals. Transport Reviews. 2011;31(5):653–677. doi: 10.1080/01441647.2010.547635
  24. Cheon S, Dowall DE, Song DW. Evaluating impacts of institutional reforms on port efficiency changes: Ownership, corporate structure, and total factor productivity changes of world container ports. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review. 2010;46(4):546–561. doi: 10.1016/j.tre.2009.04.001
  25. Notteboom T, Coeck C, Van Den Broeck J. Measuring and Explaining the Relative Efficiency of Container Terminals by Means of Bayesian Stochastic Frontier Models. International journal of maritime economics. 2000;2(2):83–106. doi: 10.1057/ijme.2000.9
  26. Turner H, Windle R, Dresner M. North American containerport productivity: 1984–1997. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review. 2004;40(4):339–356. doi: 10.1016/j.tre.2003.06.001


© 2021 Boakye et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.