Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Year: 2016, Volume: 9, Issue: 5, Pages: 1-9
Emanuil Danayevich Adinyayev*
*Author for Correspondence
Emanuil Danayevich Adinyayev Department of Agriculture and Land Regulation, Gorsky State University of Agriculture, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation; [email protected]
Background/Objectives: The research is aimed at studying the effect of the pastureland use routine on altering the indicators of the soil fertility and on the erosion process development. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The studies were conducted in the mountains at an altitude of 1570 m above sea level on the mountain meadow subalpine soils with acidic reaction of soil solution (рН=5,9). The chemical analyses of the average runoff sample and that of the washout sample were carried out to determine the contents of the accessible forms of such nourishing elements as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Findings: This study shows that in the middle of the last century a significant amount of agricultural products were produced in the North Caucasus Mountains; this output was significantly reduced due to soil erosion caused by poorly plant-protected surface and livestock congestion. Erosion leads to dispersion of soil horizon structure, megastructure reduction and increase in dust, it also results in increased soil specific weight and solid phase unit weight, in decreased air and capillary porosity with reduction of aggregate water stability and water permeability. In the absence of grazing, the total losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium amounted to 7.84 kg/ha and 296.56 kg/ha with intensive pasturing, which was higher by 37.8 times. With the admissible levels of grazing intensity no reliable data for the productivity alteration was obtained, and in the grazing routine modes of 2/15, 3/10, 3/15 a decrease in the productivity was established. Grazing lowers the grass stand quality, while increasing the proportion of fiber, fat and ash. The yield of nutritional chemicals per 1 hectare increased under optimal grazing conditions and decreased under intensive grazing routines. Applications/ Improvements: Recommendations for cattle grazing routines have been developed with regard to degraded and normally functioning pasturelands. It is proposed to avoid excessive grazing routines.
Keywords: Cattle Grazing Routine, Erosion Processes, Fodder
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