• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2021, Volume: 14, Issue: 22, Pages: 1806-1812

Original Article

Harpic Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes in Fresh Water Fish Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)

Received Date:31 March 2021, Accepted Date:29 May 2021, Published Date:19 June 2021


Objectives: To investigate the xenobiotic action of toilet cleaner ‘Harpic’ on gills and muscles of fresh water teleost common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Methods: The test organism, fingerlings of Common carp (weight: 4.5±1.3g), (length: 5.3±1.5cm) were collected form Bhadra Reservoir Project, India. Static bioassay tests were conducted in order to evaluate the acute toxicity of Harpic. In all treatments, ten fully acclimatized test organisms were held and the same was observed for experiment and placed in different concentrations of Harpic to determine LC50 values after 24 hours. Behavioral responses and mortality of the fishes were recorded at the interval of 2 hours and the alternation of behavioral characteristics was recorded. Glucose was estimated by Anthrone method. Glycogen was estimated by Kemp’s method and Protein content was estimated by Lowery’s method. Findings: The glycogen muscle (0.015mg/g) and gills (0.06mg/g), and protein in muscles (0.482mg/g) and gills (0.749mg/g) levels were found to be depleted respectively in the tissues exposure to sub lethal concentration over the control. Whereas, the glucose level in the fish tissue showed an increase in muscle (0.168 mg/g) and in gills (0.108 mg/g) on pesticide exposure in comparison with the control. The depletion of glycogen level of gills (0.06mg/g) on pesticide exposure may be due to stress condition and increased metabolism. Further depletion of protein may also attribute to spontaneous utilization of amino acids in various catabolic reactions inside the organisms in order to combat the stress condition. Gill exhibited alteration such as showed desquamation of the epithelial lining, necrosis (Telangiectasia) of the secondary lamellae, shrinkage of secondary lamellae and also showed hypertrophy and hyperplasia at the base of the secondary lamellae. In case of muscle the nuclear proliferation was observed and also seen different size of the muscle fibres, disintegration of muscle bundles, atrophy of muscle bundles, marked thickening and separation of muscle bundles. Novelty: No such works carried out on the effect on younger developmental stages of fishes which are considered to be more susceptible and vulnerable to toxicants than those of adult stages.


Cyprinus carpio, Harpic, Desquamation, Hyperglycaemia, Necrosis


  1. Ruiswell RE, Brimblecombe P, Deut DL, Liss PS. Environmental chemistry, the earth-air-water factory. 1992.
  2. Okpokwasili GO, Nwabuzor CN. Primary biodegradation of anionic surfactants in laundry detergents. Chemosphere. 1988;17:2175–2182. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1005709709031
  3. Farkas A, Salanki J, Specziar A. Relation between growth and the heavy metals concentrations in organs of bream, Abramisbrama L. populating lake Blaton. Arch. of Environ. Contam.Toxicol. 2002;43(2):236–243. Available from: 10.1007/s00244-002-1123-5
  4. Köck G, Triendl M, Hofer R. Seasonal patterns of metal accumulation in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from an oligotrophic Alpine lake related to temperature. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 1996;53(4):780–786. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f95-243
  5. Cavalli LM, Cassani G, Pravettoni S, Nucci O, Larrizaria M. Surfactants in sediments. Clear Review. 2000;6:32–43.
  6. Eniola K, Olayemi AB. Some Aspects of Bacterial-Detergents interaction in fresh water environment. Bioscience Research communication. 2002;14(6). Available from: https://scialert. net/eboardlivedna.php?issn=1994-5426&id=234.3348
  7. Ogundiran M, Fawole O, Adewoye S, Ayandiran T. Toxicological impact of detergent effluent on juvenile of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (Buchell 1822) Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2010;1(3):330–342. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2010.1.3.330.342
  8. Olojo EAA, Olurin KB, Mbaka G, OD. Histopathology of gills and liver tissues of the African catfish Clariasgariepinus exposed to lead. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(1):117–122. Available from: https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/6599/1/jb05022.pdf
  9. Solbe JF. Freshwater. In: Handbook of Ecotoxicology . Peter Collins. 1995.
  10. Rahman MZ, Hossain ZM, Ellah MFR, AG. Effect of Diazinon 60Ec onAnabustestudineus, Channapunctatus and Barbadesgomonous. Naga The ICLARM quarterly. 2002;25:8–112. Available from: http://aquaticcommons.org/9461/
  11. Roe JH, Carroll N. V The determination of sugar in blood and spinal fluid with anthrone reagent. J. Biol. Chemistry. 1955;212:335–343. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13233235/
  12. Carroll NV, Longley R, Roe J. Glycogen determination in liver and muscle by use of anthronereagent. Journal of Biol. Chemistry. 1956;22:583–593. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13331917/
  13. Lowry O, Rosebrough N, Farr AL, Randall R. Protein measurement with the Follin-phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1951;193(1):265–275. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9258(19)52451-6
  14. Litchfield JT, Wilcoxon F. A simple method of evaluating dose effects experiments. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1949;96:99–113. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18152921/
  15. Palanichamy R, Murugan V. Acute toxicity ofhousehold detergents to a weed fish Rasboraelonga. J.Environ. Biology. 1991;12(2):143–148. Available from: http://www.isca.in/AVFS/Archive/v1/i9/3.ISCA-RJAVFS-2013-052.php
  16. Maruthanayagam C, Ravi N, Arun S, Subramaniam P. Impact of detergent on biochemistry of freshwater prawn Macrobranchiumlamarrei. Environment and ecology. 1997;(3) 97–102.
  17. Eknath C. Studies on Toxicity of Detergents to Mystusmontanus and Change in behaviour of Fish. Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences. 2013;1(9):14–19. Available from: http://www.isca.in/AVFS/Archive/v1/i9/3.ISCA-RJAVFS-2013-052.pdf
  18. Gernhöfer M, Pawet M, Schramm M, Müller E, Triebskorn R. Ultrastructural biomarkers as tools to characterize the health status of fish in contaminated streams. J Aquat Ecossyst Stress Recovery. 2001;8:241–260.
  19. Shah SL. Behavioural abnormalities of Cyprinionwatsoni on exposure to copper and zinc. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 1975;26.
  20. Vasantharaja C, Pugazhendy K, Venkatesan S, Meenambal M, Prabakaran S, Jayachandran K. Acute Toxicity of Cypermethrin and its Impact on Biochemical Alteration in the Fresh Water Fish Cirrhinusmrigala (Hamilton) and Protective Effect of Cardiospermumhelicacabum (Linn) International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives. 2012;3(1):146–152.
  21. Veeraiah K, Srinivas, Rao P, Symyuktha R, Dhilleswarao A, H. Changes in biochemical parameters of freshwater fish Labeorohita exposed to lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of. IndoxacarbInternational Journal of Bioassays. 2013;(2) 1382–1387.
  22. Pechiammalk, Vasanthij E, Joice P. 2015. Available from: https://ijppr.humanjournals.com/20-4/
  23. Vijayalakshmi M, Sumathy R, Sharmila J. Electrophoretic pattern and Histopathological Study of Muscle Tissue Tilapia, Oreonchromismossambicus. Exposed to textile dyes. International Journal of Science and Research. 2015;p. 2319–2399. Available from: https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v5i10/ART20162253.pdf
  24. Georgieva E, Stoyanova S, Velcheva I. VeselaYanchevaHistopathological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Gills Caused by Thiamethoxam2014. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 2014;57(6).


© 2021 Somashekar et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.