• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Issue: 16, Pages: 1641-1647

Original Article

Quality of service enabled intelligent water drop algorithm based routing protocol for dynamic link failure detection in wireless sensor network

Received Date:27 March 2020, Accepted Date:12 May 2020, Published Date:08 June 2020


Objectives: To propose a better routing protocol method to increase the lifespan of the network and to make the sensed data to reach from source to destination without any data loss. Methods: This study proposes a routing protocol inspired by nature namely, Quality of Service enabled Intelligent Water Drop Algorithm based Routing Protocol to detect link failures and provide efficient routing. Findings: Comparison has been made with baseline protocols to check its effectiveness and found that the proposed protocol has better performance than the baseline protocols. This research work enhances and adopts the intelligent water drop algorithm with the properties of velocity of water drops and water drops carrying level of soil for finding the better stable route for communication and detecting the link failures dynamically. The results determine that the proposed routing protocol is able to perform better than existing protocols and methods in terms of Energy Depletion rate, Survivability of nodes during transmission, delivering the packets from one end to another end, delay, failure tolerance and increase in Network Lifespan.

Keywords: WSN; Delay; Energy; Routing; Water-Drop


  1. Elhabyan RSY, Yagoub MCE. Two-tier particle swarm optimization protocol for clustering and routing in wireless sensor network. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. 2015;52:116–128. doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2015.02.004
  2. Qiu W, Skafidas E, Hao P. Enhanced tree routing for wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks. 2009;7(3):638–650. doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2008.07.006
  3. Wang Y, Yi CW, Huang M, Li F. Three-dimensional greedy routing in large-scale random wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks. 2013;11(4):1331–1344. doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2010.10.003
  4. Darabkh KA, El-Yabroudi MZ, El-Mousa AH. BPA-CRP: A balanced power-aware clustering and routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks. 2019;82:155–171. doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.08.012
  5. Levendovszky J, Tran-Thanh L, Treplan G, Kiss G. Fading-aware reliable and energy efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. Computer Communications. 2010;33:S102–S109. doi: 10.1016/j.comcom.2010.07.005
  6. Lu J, Feng L, Yang J, Hassan MM, Alelaiwi A, Humar I. Artificial agent: The fusion of artificial intelligence and a mobile agent for energy-efficient traffic control in wireless sensor networks. Future Generation Computer Systems. 2019;95:45–51. doi: 10.1016/j.future.2018.12.024
  7. Wadhwa LK, Deshpande RS, Priye V. Extended shortcut tree routing for ZigBee based wireless sensor network. Ad Hoc Networks. 2016;37(2):295–300. doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2015.08.025
  8. Huang H, Zhang J, Zhang X, Yi B, Fan Q, Li F. EMGR: Energy-efficient multicast geographic routing in wireless sensor networks. Computer Networks. 2017;129(1):51–63. doi: 10.1016/j.comnet.2017.08.011
  9. Elhabyan R, Shi W, St-Hilaire M. A Pareto optimization-based approach to clustering and routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. 2018;114:57–69. doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2018.04.005
  10. Niroumand Z, Aghdasi HS. A geographic cross-layer routing adapted for disaster relief operations in wireless sensor networks. Computers & Electrical Engineering. 2017;64:395–406. doi: 10.1016/j.compeleceng.2017.07.021
  11. Vajdi A, Zhang G, Wang Y, Zhao Y, Liu D, Wang T. A New Approach Based on Intelligent Water Drops Algorithm for Node Selection in Service-Oriented Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Fourth International Conference on Big Data and Cloud Computing. 2014.
  12. Ketshabetswe LK, Zungeru AM, Mangwala M, Chuma JM, Sigweni B. Communication protocols for wireless sensor networks: A survey and comparison. Heliyon. 2019;5:e01591. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01591
  13. Ezugwu AE, Akutsah F, Olusanya MO, Adewumi AO. Enhanced intelligent water drops algorithm for multi-depot vehicle routing problem. PLOS ONE. 2018;13(3):e0193751. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193751
  14. Alijla BO, Lim CP, Wong LP, Khader AT, Betar MAA. An Ensemble of Intelligent Water Drop Algorithm for Feature Selection Optimization Problem. Applied Soft Computing. 2018;65:531–541. doi: 10.1016/j.asoc.2018.02.003
  15. Sayad L, Bouallouche-Medjkoune, Aissani L&, Djamil. IWDRP: An Intelligent Water Drops Inspired Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Wireless Personal Communications. 2017;94:2561–2581. doi: 10.1007/s11277-016-3692-z
  16. Chanak P, Banerjee I, Sherratt RS. Energy-aware distributed routing algorithm to tolerate network failure in wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks. 2017;56:158–172. doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.12.006
  17. Nithyanandh S, Jaiganesh V. Dynamic Link Failure Detection using Robust Virus Swarm Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network”. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering. 2019;8(2):1574–1579. doi: 10.35940/ijrte.B2271.078219
  18. Nithyanandh S, Jaiganesh V. Reconnaissance Artificial Bee Colony Routing Protocol To Detect Dynamic Link Failure In Wireless Sensor Network”. International Journal Of Scientific & Technology Research. 2019;10(10):3244–3251.
  19. Lingaraj M, Prakash A. Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP) to Reduce Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks”. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering. 2019;7(5). Available from: https://www.ijrte.org/wp-content/uploads/papers/v7i5/E1969017519.pdf


© 2020 Nithyanandh, Jaiganesh. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.