• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Issue: 40, Pages: 4224-4233

Original Article

Technology in action: Ascertaining the impact of cell phone calls on middle school students placed at risk of drop out

Received Date:25 July 2020, Accepted Date:05 September 2020, Published Date:20 November 2020


Background/Objectives: Regular attendance at school is essential for allround development of students. The fundamental objective of this study was to utilize low-cost technology of cell phones to report to parents/guardians about the attendance of their children at schools and ascertain the impacts of cell phone calls on the attendance of Middle School students placed at risk of Drop out. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study was Experimental with a PretestPosttest Control Group by design and descriptive by purpose. The participants were 30 eight graders belonging to a Public Middle School of District Shaheed Benazirabad in Pakistan. These participants were then randomly assigned to Control and Experimental Groups (15 each). For intervention of making cell phone calls to parents/guardians to inform and ask them about the reason for the absence of their child, a teacher in each participating school was assigned this responsibility. The intervention lasted for 3 months. The data was analyzed using SPSS repeated measure t-test to calculate the significance of the impact of intervention. Findings: Results of the present study indicated that the attendance of Experimental Group on Posttest (75.07 %) was significantly higher than that on Pretest (62.87%). Novelty : This study utilizes existing technology available to almost everyone and bridges the parents and school administration to get the best outcome quickly; mobile-based intervention is simple and docile to regulate students’ performance at school level; it also improves the safety of the students.
Keywords: Cell phone calls; impact; students; drop out; middle school


  1. Nanney M, Myers S, Xu M, Kent K, Durfee T, Allen M. The Economic Benefits of Reducing Racial Disparities in Health: The Case of Minnesota. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019;16. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050742
  2. Ehrenberg RG, Ehrenberg RA, Rees DI, Ehrenberg EL. School district leave policies, teacher absenteeism, and student achievement. National Bureau of Economic Research. 1989. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3386/w2874
  3. Pakistan Education Statistics 2016-17. Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM). Available from: http://library.aepam.edu.pk/Books/Pakistan%20Education%20Statistics%202016-17.pdf (accessed )
  4. Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) Pakistan Telecommunication Authority Annual Report 2018. 2018. Available from: https://www.pta.gov.pk/en/annual-reports
  5. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics 6th Population & Housing Census 2017. 2020. Available from: http://www.pbs.gov.pk/content/population-census
  6. Lehr CA, Sinclair MF, Christenson SL. Addressing Student Engagement and Truancy Prevention During the Elementary School Years: A Replication Study of the Check & Connect Model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR). 2004;9:279–301. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327671espr0903_4
  7. Kearney CA, Graczyk P. A Response to Intervention Model to Promote School Attendance and Decrease School Absenteeism. Child & Youth Care Forum. 2014;43(1):1–25. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10566-013-9222-1
  8. Balfanz R, Byrnes V. Chronic absenteeism: Summarizing what we know from nationally available data. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Center for Social Organization of Schools. Baltimore. Johns Hopkins University Center for Social Organization of Schools. 2012.
  9. Sheldon SB, Jung SB. Johns Hopkins University Student outcomes and parent teacher home visits. Center on School, Family, & Community Partnerships. Available from: http://www. pthvp. Org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/181130-StudentOutcomesandPTHVReportFINAL. Pdf
  10. Robinson CD, Lee MG, Dearing E, Rogers T. Reducing Student Absenteeism in the Early Grades by Targeting Parental Beliefs. American Educational Research Journal. 2018;55(6):1163–1192. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831218772274
  11. Leenders H, Jong Jd, Monfrance M, Haelermans C. Building strong parent–teacher relationships in primary education: the challenge of two-way communication. Cambridge Journal of Education. 2019;49(4):519–533. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305764x.2019.1566442
  12. Bordalba MM, Bochaca JG. Digital media for family-school communication? Parents' and teachers' beliefs. Computers & Education. 2019;132:44–62. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.01.006
  13. Murray B, Domina T, Renzulli L, Boylan R. Civil Society Goes to School: Parent-Teacher Associations and the Equality of Educational Opportunity. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences. 2019;5(3):41–63. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2019.5.3.03
  14. Schwartz D, Kelleghan A, Malamut S, Mali L, Ryjova Y, Hopmeyer A, et al. Distinct Modalities of Electronic Communication and School Adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2019;48:1452–1468. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01061-8
  15. Smythe-Leistico K, Page LC. Connect-Text: Leveraging Text-Message Communication to Mitigate Chronic Absenteeism and Improve Parental Engagement in the Earliest Years of Schooling. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR). 2018;23(1-2):139–152. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10824669.2018.1434658
  16. Lawpoolsri S, Khamsiriwatchara A, Liulark W, Taweeseneepitch K, Sangvichean A, Thongprarong W, et al. Real-Time Monitoring of School Absenteeism to Enhance Disease Surveillance: A Pilot Study of a Mobile Electronic Reporting System. JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 2014;2(2). Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.3114
  17. Rogers T, Duncan T, Wolford T, Ternovski J, Subramanyam S, Reitano A. A Randomized Experiment Using Absenteeism Information to" Nudge" Attendance. REL 2017-252. Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic. 2017.
  18. Asim M, Dee T. Mobile phones, civic engagement, and school performance in Pakistan. National Bureau of Economic Research.
  19. Banerjee AV, Banerji R, Duflo E, Glennerster R, Khemani S. Pitfalls of Participatory Programs: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Education in India. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy. 2010;2(1):1–30. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1257/pol.2.1.1


© 2020 Rajput et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee).


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.