• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2023, Volume: 16, Issue: 35, Pages: 2807-2812

Original Article

Association of Parosmia and nutritional status in Post COVID Patients using PAST TOOL

Received Date:09 May 2023, Accepted Date:06 August 2023, Published Date:16 September 2023


Objectives: To determine the association between normal dietary intake of patients suffering from parosmia and clinically relevant recovery of olfactory and gustatory function in patients with postinfectious COVID-19 using the PAST tool. Method: The study involved categorizing post-COVID patients into two distinct groups based on the presence or absence of parosmia. These groups were then subjected to a standardized questionnaire known as the ”PAST TOOL” to determine the specific foods that elicited aversive reactions in the patients. The 24-hour recall was considered for calculating their energy and protein intake. Findings: The study revealed that the presence of an odd/unusual taste and odour significantly influences the dietary behaviour, energy, and protein intake of individuals afflicted with parosmia. The patients’ energy and protein intake were notably lower, with mean values of 538.6 ()148.9kcal and 26.17 ()8.08g, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Furthermore, the emotional well-being of the patients was adversely affected, leading to a significant impact on their overall quality of life. Novelty: This study aims to investigate the potential correlation between parosmia and nutritional status among post-COVID patients. The PAST tool was utilized to obtain data on the olfactory and gustatory responses and stimuli of individuals who have encountered parosmia following their recovery from COVID-19. The exploration of this association is considered as a novel area of research as it has not been extensively studied.

Keywords: Olfactory; Parosmia; Gustatory; Covid19; PAST Tool


  1. Wang C, Tee M, Roy AE, Fardin MA, Srichokchatchawan W, Habib HA, et al. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health of Asians: A study of seven middle-income countries in Asia. 2021. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246824
  2. Ciurleo R, Salvo SD, Bonanno L, Marino S, Bramanti P, Caminiti F. Parosmia and Neurological Disorders: A Neglected Association. 2020. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.543275
  3. Mehraeen E, Behnezhad F, Salehi MA, Noori T, Harandi H, Seyedalinaghi S. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a review of current evidence. 2021. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06120-6
  4. Parma V, Ohla K, Veldhuizen MG, Niv MY, Kelly CE, Bakke AJ, et al. More Than Smell-COVID-19 Is Associated With Severe Impairment of Smell, Taste, and Chemesthesis. 2020. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa041
  5. Parma V, Ohla K, Veldhuizen MG, Niv MY, Kelly CE, Bakke AJ, et al. More than smell - COVID-19 is associated with severe impairment of smell, taste, and chemesthesis. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. 2020. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa041
  6. Julian J, Attuquayefio T, White EB, Geng B, Handoko R, Herz RS, et al. Implementing an At-Home Smell Test for Early Assessment of COVID-19 in High-Risk Healthcare Workers. Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2020;456. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa439.649
  7. Rashid RA, Alaqeedy AA, Al-Ani RM. Parosmia Due to COVID-19 Disease: A 268 Case Series. Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. 2022;74(S2):2970–2977. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-021-02630-9
  8. Rawal S, Duffy VB, Berube L, Hayes JE, Kant AK, Li CMM, et al. Self-Reported Olfactory Dysfunction and Diet Quality: Findings from the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Nutrients. 2021;13(12):4561. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124561
  9. Reden J, Maroldt H, Fritz A, Zahnert T, Hummel T. A study on the prognostic significance of qualitative olfactory dysfunction. 2007. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-006-0157-0
  10. Pellegrino R, Mainland JD, Kelly CE, Parker JK, Hummel T. Prevalence and correlates of parosmia and phantosmia among smell disorders. PMCID. 2021. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjab046
  11. Altundag A, Parosmia P. Parosmia and Phantosmia: Managing Quality Disorders. Managing Quality Disorders. 2023;11. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40136-023-00441-w
  12. Croy I, Nordin S, Hummel T. Olfactory disorders and quality of life--an updated review. Chemical Senses. 2014;39(3). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjt072
  13. Parker JK, Kelly CE, Smith BC, Kirkwood AF, Hopkins C, Gane S. Patients' Perspectives on Qualitative Olfactory Dysfunction: Thematic Analysis of Social Media Posts. 2021. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2196/29086
  14. Butowt R, Bilinska K, Bartheld CSV. Olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19: new insights into the underlying mechanisms. Trends in Neurosciences. 2023;46(1):75–90. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2022.11.003
  15. Rombaux P, Potier H, Markessis E, Duprez T, Hummel T. Olfactory bulb volume and depth of olfactory sulcus in patients with idiopathic olfactory loss. 2010. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405010-1230-2


© 2023 Mohan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.