• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Issue: 43, Pages: 4454-4464

Original Article

Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic sachharification of cotton ginning waste

Received Date:05 May 2020, Accepted Date:24 June 2020, Published Date:09 December 2020


Background/Objective: The objective is to study the effect of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of cotton ginning waste to produced fermentable sugars. The Box Behnken design (BBD) was used for optimization of physical parameters. Method: Cellulase production by Trichoderma sp. (A11) was carried out under solid state fermentation using wheat bran. Pretreatment were carried out with 3% (V/V) diluted sulfuric acid and sachharification with crude cellulase enzyme of cotton ginning waste. The proximate analysis of treated and untreated cotton ginning biomass was done by Goering and Van Soest method to find the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content. The total reducing sugar was measured by using Di-nitro salicylic acid (DNSA) method. Incubation time, moisture ratio and substrate loading was optimized by using BBD for sachharification of cotton ginning waste. Finding: Untreated cotton ginning waste biomass contain 40.7% (w/w) of cellulose and 17.3 % (w/w) of lignin. Under sulfuric acid treatment, the residual acid treated cotton ginning waste biomass was found to have 62.4  4.1 % (w/w) cellulose and 9.9  0.6 % (w/w) lignin. Acid treated cotton ginning waste produced 117.3 mg/g while as untreated cotton ginning waste produced 29.7mg/g total reducing sugar. After statistical optimization by using BBD total reducing sugar was increased to 328 mg/g experimentally, at an optimum 5% of substrate concentration, 10 FPU enzyme loading on 7th day of incubation period and at 5 pH. Application: The fermentable sugar which is produced from cotton ginning waste biomass which can be further utilized for bioethanol production.

Keywords: Cotton ginning waste; acid pretreatment; Cellulase; enzymatic sachharification


  1. Sonderegger M, Jeppsson M, Larsson C, Gorwa-Grauslund MF, Boles E, Olsson L, et al. Fermentation performance of engineered and evolved xylose-fermentingSaccharomyces cerevisiaestrains. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2004;87(1):90–98. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.20094
  2. Qi B, Chen X, Shen F, Su Y, Wan Y. Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw Pretreated by Alkaline Peroxide Using Response Surface Methodology. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 2009;48(15):7346–7353. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie8016863
  3. Sindhu R, Kuttiraja M, Binod P, Janu KU, Sukumaran RK, Pandey A. Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane tops for bioethanol production. Bioresource Technology. 2011;102(23):10915–10921. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.066
  4. Shi J, Chinn M, Sharma-Shivappa R. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by solid state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Bioresource Technology. 2008;99(14):6556–6564. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.11.069
  5. Narra M, Dixit G, Divecha J, Kumar K, Madamwar D, Shah AR. Production, purification and characterization of a novel GH 12 family endoglucanase from Aspergillus terreus and its application in enzymatic degradation of delignified rice straw. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 2014;88:150–161. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2013.12.016
  6. Mandel M, Resse E. Induction of cellulase in fungi in Trichoderma viride as influencing carbon source. Journal of Bacteriology. 1957;37:268–298.
  7. Waghmare RP, Patil MS, Jadhav SL, Jeon BH, Govindwar SP. Utilization of agricultural waste biomass by cellulolytic isolate Enterobacter sp. SUK-Bio. Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2017. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anres.2018.10.019
  8. Goering K, Soest PJV. Forage fiber analysis-agriculture research series. 1975.
  9. Miller GL. Use of Dinitrosalicylic Acid Reagent for Determination of Reducing Sugar. Analytical Chemistry. 1959;31(3):426–428. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac60147a030
  10. Converse AO, Matsuno R, Tanaka M, Taniguchi M. A model of enzyme adsorption and hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose with slow deactivation of the adsorbed enzyme. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 1988;32(1):38–45. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.260320107
  11. Sindhu R, Binod P, Satyanagalakshmi K, Janu KU, Sajna KV, Kurien N, et al. Formic Acid as a Potential Pretreatment Agent for the Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse to Bioethanol. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2010;162(8):2313–2323. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-010-9004-2
  12. Satyanagalakshmi K, Sindhu R, Binod P, Janu KU, Sukumaran RK, Pandey A. Bioethanol production from acid pretreated water hyacinth by separate hydrolysis and fermentation. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 2011;70:156–161.
  13. Grohmann K, Himmel M, Rivard C, Baker TM, J. Chemicalmechanical methods for the enhanced utilization of straw. In: Biotechnology Bioengineering Symposium. 14:137–157.
  14. Kristensen JB, Felby C, Jørgensen H. Yield-determining factors in high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 2009;2(1). Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-2-11
  15. Lenth RV. Response-Surface Methods inR, Usingrsm. Journal of Statistical Software. 2009;32(7):1–17. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.18637/jss.v032.i07
  16. Joglekar AM, May AT. Product excellence through design of experiments. Cereal foods World. 1987;32:857–868. Available from: https://doi.org/10.12691/ajfst-3-4-2


© 2020 Chaudhary & Padhiar.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.