Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Year: 2016, Volume: 9, Issue: 46, Pages: 1-9
Badr Alsolami1,2*, Mohamed Rashid Embi2 and Wallace Imoudu Enegbuma3
1Faculty of Islamic Architecture, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; [email protected] 2Department of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, University Technology Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia 3Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia; [email protected]
*Author for correspondence
Faculty of Islamic Architecture, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, University Technology Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia [email protected]
Objective: This paper examines the effects of personal factors (expectation, control, sociability and mood) on perceived crowding levels among African group of pilgrims. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Data was collected via self-administered questionnaire from 156 African pilgrims to Hajj. The data was analyzed using SPSS for descriptive analysis and AMOS for Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Internal consistency of the developed research instrument, Kaiser-MeyerOlkin measure of sampling adequacy and exploratory factor analysis revealed that the research instrument was suitable. Findings: Among the African pilgrim group measurement model, control and sociability had the highest correlation while expectation and perceived level of crowding had the lowest correlation. Furthermore, control personal factor had the least insignificant impact on perceived level of crowding. Expectation and mood personal factors were both significant factors in this study. Applications/Improvements: Policy formation on managing crowd levels and perception will invariably be strategic via incorporating the findings of this paper. Future research will be extended to assess the effects of other factors such as physical factors Hajj pilgrims.
Keywords: Crowding, Hajj, Mina, Perception, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)
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