• P-ISSN 0974-6846 E-ISSN 0974-5645

Indian Journal of Science and Technology


Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Year: 2023, Volume: 16, Issue: 46, Pages: 4429-4435

Original Article

Ergonomic School Bags: Can Additional Straps Make a Difference in Posture?

Received Date:11 September 2023, Accepted Date:18 October 2023, Published Date:20 December 2023


Objectives: This study investigates the potential benefits of incorporating additional anterior straps into school backpacks to alleviate postural issues in children aged 10 to 15 years. Methods: The research was conducted at a Matriculation Higher Secondary School in Chennai for a duration of 7 months and involved 50 students from grades 4 to 8, encompassing both genders. The study utilized experimental design using pre and post-test measurements. This ergonomic school bag consisted of anterior additional cross straps and horizontal straps which is not usually present in conventional school backpacks. The Craniovertebral Angle, Craniohorizontal Angle and Sagittal Shoulder Posture were measured before and after use of ergonomic bags. Findings: Results indicated a significant improvement in postural angles after the use of school bags with additional straps. The Craniovertebral Angle scores increased from 38.47 ± 3.63 (Pre-test) to 45.63 ± 3.05 (Post-test). Craniohorizontal Angle scores decreased from 26.89 ± 2.30 (Pre-test) to 19.98 ± 1.68 (Post-test), while Sagittal Shoulder Posture scores improved from 61.80 ± 4.46 (Pre-test) to 52.74 ± 1.89 (Post-test). The p-value of ≤ 0.001 indicated highly significant difference between mean values obtained from pre and post measurements. Novelty : A backpack with additional anterior straps was designed which differs from conventional back packs and the effectiveness was tested. Previous literature has not reported the benefits of adding additional anterior straps and this research is the first to have studied the effects of this ergonomic backpack on posture among school going children.

Keywords: Backpack, Ergonomics, Posture, School bags, Children, Musculoskeletal pain, Additional straps


  1. Minghelli B, Nunes C, Oliveira R. Back School Postural Education Program: Comparison of Two Types of Interventions in Improving Ergonomic Knowledge about Postures and Reducing Low Back Pain in Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(9):1–12. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094434
  2. de-la-Iglesia L, Bravo C, Rubí-Carnacea F. Upper crossed syndrome in secondary school students: A mixed-method study. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2023;18(4):894–907. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2023.01.008
  3. Rashid M, Mathew J, V VSR, Raja K. Optimization of backpack loads using gait parameters in school boys. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2021;25:174–182. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2020.11.014
  4. Sankaran S, John J, Patra SS, Das RR, Satapathy AK. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain and Its Relation With Weight of Backpacks in School-Going Children in Eastern India. Frontiers in Pain Research. 2021;2:1–6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpain.2021.684133
  5. Saini SK, Bharti B, Gopinathan NR, Meenakshi, Kavita. Impact of Educational Intervention in Reducing the Weight of School Bags in Selected School Children. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2023;48(4):533–538. Available from: https://journals.lww.com/ijcm/fulltext/2023/48040/impact_of_educational_intervention_in_reducing_the.6.aspx
  6. Ozdemir S, Gencbas D, Tosun B, Bebis H, Sinan O. Musculoskeletal Pain, Related Factors, and Posture Profiles Among Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study From Turkey. Pain Management Nursing. 2021;22(4):522–530. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmn.2020.11.013
  7. Suri C, Shojaei I, Bazrgari B. Effects of School Backpacks on Spine Biomechanics During Daily Activities: A Narrative Review of Literature. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 2020;62(6):909–918. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720819858792
  8. Illiyin S, Karma A, T, Yunihanawati R. Relationship Between Backpack Use And Postural Disorders (Scoliosis) In Elementary School Student. Journal of Prosthetics Orthotics and Science Technology. 2023;2(1):15–22. Available from: https://doi.org/10.36082/jpost.v2i1.985
  9. Assiri A, Mahfouz AA, Awadalla NJ, Abolyazid AY, Shalaby M. Back Pain and Schoolbags among Adolescents in Abha City, Southwestern Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(1):1–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010005
  10. Gheysvandi E, Dianat I, Heidarimoghadam R, Tapak L, Karimi-Shahanjarini A, Rezapur-Shahkolai F. Neck and shoulder pain among elementary school students: prevalence and its risk factors. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1–11. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7706-0
  11. Wang R, Yin Y, Zhang H, Pan L, Zhu Y, Wang M, et al. Risk factors associated with the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain among high school students: a cross-sectional survey in China. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2023;24(1):1–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-023-06656-8
  12. Mosaad DM, Abdel-Aziem AA. The relationship between neck angles and ground reaction forces in schoolchildren during backpack carriage. Biomedical Human Kinetics. 2020;12(1):1–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2478/bhk-2020-0001
  13. Barbosa J, Marques MC, Izquierdo M, Neiva HP, Barbosa TM, Ramírez-Vélez R, et al. Schoolbag weight carriage in Portuguese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study comparing possible influencing factors. BMC Pediatrics. 2019;19(1):1–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1519-2
  14. Miñana-Signes V, Monfort-Pañego M, Valiente J. Teaching Back Health in the School Setting: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(3):1–18. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030979
  15. Genitrini M, Dotti F, Bianca E, Ferri A. Impact of Backpacks on Ergonomics: Biomechanical and Physiological Effects: A Narrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022;19(11):1–19. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116737
  16. Donisi L, Amitrano F, Coccia A, Mercogliano L, Cesarelli G, D'Addio G. Influence of the Backpack on School Children’s Gait: A Statistical and Machine Learning Approach. In: Jarm T, Cvetkoska A, Mahnič-Kalamiza S, Miklavcic D., eds. 8th European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference, EMBEC 2020. Springer, Cham. p. 682–688.
  17. Ramadan MZ, Al-Tayyar SN. Development and Experimental Verification of an Ergonomic Backpack. BioMed Research International. 2020;2020:1–13. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/1437126
  18. Layuk S, Martiana T, Bongakaraeng B. School Bag Weight and the Occurrence of Back Pain among Elementary School Children. Journal of Public Health Research. 2020;9(2):191–194. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2020.18
  19. Mandrekar S, Chavhan D, Shyam AK, Sancheti PK. Effects of carrying school bags on cervical and shoulder posture in static and dynamic conditions in adolescent students. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. 2019;34(1):1–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2019-0073
  20. Yao Y, Xie Y, Huang Z, Tang E, Li M, Zhu M, et al. A Healthy Childrens Backpack Product for Childrens Spine Development. In: Design Studies and Intelligence Engineering, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications. (Vol. 365, pp. 307-316) IOS Press. 2023.


© 2023 Kirthika et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Published By Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee)


Subscribe now for latest articles and news.